The Kremlin's Inroads After the Africa Summit


The Kremlin’s Inroads After the Africa Summit

By: Nataliya Bugayova, Mason Clark, Michaela Walker, Andre Briere, Anthony Yanchuk, and George Barros 

This update expands on ISW’s August 2019 assessment of Russia’s campaign in Africa. It incorporates key developments from the Russia-Africa Summit held in October 2019. This update covers four components of Russia’s effort to advance its objectives in Africa:

Key Takeaway: Russian President Vladimir Putin is succeeding in exploiting Russia’s campaign in Africa to support his strategic objectives. Among them is Putin’s key effort to boost Russia’s economy by developing new revenue streams without having to undertake genuine reform. Putin also likely views Africa as a resource pool that can help strengthen his regime and his position. Putin’s associates are in charge of the Russian state-owned enterprises that are securing lucrative deals in Africa. The Kremlin managed to convert its outreach in Africa into a set of concrete deals at the October 2019 Russia-Africa Summit. It is difficult to assess the exact value of all the deals Russia currently has in Africa from openly available information. The value is growing, however. Russia’s new arms deals in 2019 alone include a $2 billion contract with Egypt, $2 billion contract with Algeria, and an estimated $400 million contract with Nigeria.[1] Putin claimed at the summit that Russia exports around $15 billion in arms to Africa annually.[2] Russia currently has at least twenty energy, mineral, and geological exploration projects and deals in Africa. The projects range from its most recent $2.2 billion contract to construct an oil refinery in Morocco to a 30% stake in the Zohr Gas field off the Egyptian coast, which Russia claims has tripled its production this year.[3] The Kremlin is securing deals in new areas, such as a potential $500 million project to upgrade railway infrastructure in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[4] Russia is also growing its agricultural exports to Africa. The Kremlin used the recent summit in Sochi to sign numerous new framework agreements in areas from energy to defense to media cooperation. These agreements will serve to get Russia’s foot in the door and enable it to layer in additional services and deals.

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THE KREMLIN’S SECURITY COOPERATION WITH AFRICA

The Kremlin recently signed new military and security cooperation deals with Algeria, Mozambique, Nigeria, and the Republic of the Congo. Algeria signed a $2 billion contract to purchase 16 Su-30 fighters and 14 MiG-29M/M2 fighters in September.[5] Russia and Mozambique signed an agreement to “protect classified information” and establish cooperation between interior ministries in August.[6] It is not clear whether this announcement refers to an intelligence sharing agreement. Russian military personnel reportedly arrived in Mozambique in September to support counter-terrorism efforts, though the Kremlin denied these reports.[7] Islamic State-linked militants reportedly killed seven Wagner Group personnel in two separate ambushes in Mozambique in October.[8] Wagner Group is a Russian private military company that is likely funded by Putin’s associate Yevgeny Prigozhin. Nigeria signed a contract to purchase 12 Mi-35 attack helicopters at the Russia-Africa Summit on October 23 to support its fight against the Boko Haram terrorist group.[9] The Kremlin approved a military cooperation agreement to support the Republic of the Congo with military equipment and training on October 28.[10] Arms agreements with African states generate additional revenue that helps the Kremlin mitigate the effects of Western sanctions.

Several African states requested increased Russian military support during the Russia-Africa Summit. Central African Republic (CAR) President Faustin-Archange Touadéra asked Russia for heavy weapons and armored vehicles on October 23.[11] Touadera requested Russian training for helicopter pilots and maintenance technicians.[12] He said that the CAR is “considering the possibilities” of hosting a Russian military base, a claim which the Kremlin denied.[13] Namibian President Hage Geingob requested the support of Russian military advisors on October 23.[14] The Kremlin will continue to layer these additional training services onto general military cooperation agreements, which it has signed with more than half the countries in Africa.

The Kremlin continues to present itself as an effective counter-terrorism partner in Africa. The Kremlin is moving beyond its efforts to build bilateral counter-terrorism partnerships and toward building cooperation agreements with groupings of countries. Putin’s Special Representative for the Middle East and Africa Mikhail Bogdanov met with a representative from the G-5 Sahel Joint Force on October 25 to discuss cooperation to combat ISIS and al-Qaeda affiliated groups in the Maghreb region.[15] The G-5 Sahel is composed of Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Chad. Russian media reported that the G-5 Sahel members asked to host Russian bases following the summit.[16] The Kremlin seeks to use African states’ need for military assistance – offered by Russia without human rights or other conditions often imposed by Western states – to increase Russia’s strategic basing opportunities on the continent.

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THE KREMLIN’S EFFORTS TO GROW MEDIA INFLUENCE IN AFRICA 

The Kremlin is expanding its information presence in Africa as ISW previously forecasted.[17] The Kremlin emphasized information cooperation with Africa during the Russia-Africa summit.[18] Russia hosted a panel discussion with representatives of African news agencies.[19] Putin met the heads of media organizations from Algeria, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, the Republic of Congo, Ghana, Senegal, the Seychelles, Côte d'Ivoire, and Morocco during the summit.[20] The Kremlin will likely pursue content sharing and journalist training agreements with local media outlets in these states. The Kremlin made a recent push to sign such agreements with African media outlets, including Eritrean Eri-TV, Democratic Republic of Congo’s National RadioTV Corporation, the Mahgreb Arab Press, Agence Ivoirienne de Presse, the South African Government News Agency, Egyptian News Corporation Al-Ahram, and Algerie Press Service.[21] These deals will likely enable Russia to obscure the origin of its disinformation campaigns and shape the views and reporting methods of African journalists.

The Kremlin is also expanding the availability of its existing state-run networks, such as RT, TASS, and Sputnik. Russian state-run media organization TASS plans to open representative offices in Nigeria, Senegal, and Ethiopia in 2020.[22] The head of Ghana’s News Agency, Albert Kofi Owusu, reiterated at the summit that he would consider a proposal to distribute TASS stories.[23] Representatives from RT and Sputnik expressed readiness at the summit to host African journalists for training.[24] The Kremlin’s efforts in Africa advance its priority campaign to expand Russia’s ability to shape the global information space.[25]

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THE KREMLIN’S PUSH FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY EXPORTS

The Kremlin is positioning itself as a supplier of the full range of nuclear-related services including engineer training, fuel provision, and security as ISW previously forecasted.[26] Russia secured two new agreements during the Russia-Africa Summit. Russia signed an agreement with Rwanda to begin construction of a nuclear research center to promote nuclear energy in the country.[27] Russia and Ethiopia signed an intergovernmental framework agreement on cooperation in the “peaceful use” of nuclear energy with the potential for Russia to construct a nuclear research center.[28] Russia is building a similar center in Zambia. Russia seeks to use these centers to cultivate the emerging nuclear energy market in Africa. Rosatom, Russia’s state nuclear energy corporation, signed several additional cooperation agreements with African countries to market Russian nuclear energy services. Russia is currently constructing the al-Dabaa nuclear power plant in Egypt, and has an agreement to develop the Geregu nuclear power plant in Nigeria.

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THE KREMLIN’S ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES IN AFRICA

The Kremlin is pursuing expanded access to natural resources in Africa. The Kremlin signed new energy deals at the Russia-Africa Summit. Russian state development bank VEB and Morocco’s MYA Energy signed a $2.2 billion deal to build an oil refinery in Northern Morocco.[29] Russia’s Lukoil and Nigeria’s state petroleum corporation signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on potential production and trading cooperation and announced plans to create a joint venture in the refining sector.[30] Russian state gas corporation Gazprom reportedly seeks to participate in a project to build a gas pipeline linking Nigeria to Europe through Algeria.[31] The Russian Export Center, Russian bank VEB.RF, Congo’s National Oil Company, and the African Export-Import Bank agreed to build a pipeline from the Congo’s east coast to the country’s interior.[32] The pipeline will service the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic. It is planned to be built in three years. Russia has existing energy projects in Africa, including in Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, and Sudan.[33] Russian oil company Zarubezhneft is attempting to secure additional energy projects in Egypt, Angola, Gabon, the Republic of Congo, and South Sudan.[34] Rosneft and Nigeria’s Oranto Petroleum signed an MOU to develop partnerships on up to 20 existing Oranto projects in May 2018.[35]

The Kremlin signed new energy agreements at the Russia-Africa Summit to pursue geological exploration in Africa. Russian state-owned defense and technology conglomerate Rostec signed an agreement with pan-African finance institution Afreximbank to create an inter-state platform for developing mining projects.[36 Rosgeo signed an MOU to conduct geophysical operations, seismic surveys, and engineering studies in Equatorial Guinea.[37] Rosgeo signed a cooperation agreement with Rwanda’s Mines, Petroleum, and Gas Board (RMB).[38] Rosgeo and RMB will establish survey laboratories near the Lake Kivu Basin and provide geoscience training to Rwandan workers. Rosgeo and South Africa’s national oil company Petro SA are reportedly discussing a deal for Russian exploration drilling in an offshore oil and gas field.[39] Rosgeo and South Sudan signed a cooperation agreement through which Rosgeo will support exploration for and evaluation of mineral deposits.[40] Rosneft signed a cooperation agreement with Mozambique’s national petroleum corporation to conduct feasibility studies for future joint ventures in August 2019.[41] Rosgeo has existing agreements with Algeria and Madagascar.[42]

The Kremlin is pushing for access to minerals in Africa, though with less progress than in the energy sector. Sierra Leone expressed willingness during the summit to give Russian businesses “priority” in taking over mining licenses in Sierra Leone.[43] Several Russian companies discussed providing advanced mining technologies to Sierra Leone.[44] Putin pushed for increased uranium mining cooperation with Namibian President Hage Geingob at the summit.[45] Russia has limited operations in Namibia currently but seeks expanded access to Namibian uranium mines – as well as mines in other parts of Africa – as Rosatom is cultivating the emerging nuclear energy market.[46] Russia also likely seeks to secure access to the natural resources in CAR.[47] The Kremlin managed to expand its mining operations in Africa in the past several years. Russian state-owned diamond mining company Alrosa has projects in Angola and Zimbabwe.[48] Russian gold company Nordgold operates in Burkina Faso and Guinea.[49] Russian aluminum company Rusal owns two bauxite mining companies in Guinea.[50] Russian mining company Nornickel has operations to mine nickel concentrate in South Africa.[51] There are also unconfirmed reports that Russian state-linked Ferrum Mining bought a 70% stake in Malagasy state corporation Kraoma Mining S.A. in April 2019.[52]

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[1] Nigeria signed a deal with Russia in October 2019 to buy 12 Mi-35 attack helicopters. The exact value of the deal was not disclosed publicly. The authors estimate that the deal is worth approximately $400 million given that the reported price of one Mi-35 helicopter is $38 million. "Nigeria confirms order for a dozen Mi-35 helicopters from Russia," Defenseweb, October 24, 2019https://www.defenceweb.co.za/aerospace/military-helicopters/niger-orders-a-dozen-mi-35-helicopters-from-russia/.

[2] [“Plenary Session of the Russia-Africa Economic Forum,”] Kremlin, October 23, 2019, http://kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/61880.

[3] “Update 1-Rosneft says gas output at Zohr in Egypt surges to 11.3 bcm in H1,” Reuters, August 14, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/rosneft-egypt-gas/update-1-rosneft-says-gas-output-at-zohr-in-egypt-surges-to-11-3-bcm-in-h1-idUKL8N25A3I4

[4] Michael Kavanagh, “Russian Railways, DR Congo to Discuss Possible $500m Rail Deal,” Bloomberg, October 26, 2019, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-10-26/russian-railways-dr-congo-to-discuss-possible-500m-rail-deal.

[5] [“Algeria bought Russian fighters for about $ 2 billion,”] Vedomosti, September 9, 2019, https://www.vedomosti(.)ru/politics/articles/2019/09/09/810856-alzhir-kupil-istrebiteli.

[6] “Russia and Mozambique conclude an agreement on the protection of classified information,” RIA Novosti, August 22, 2019, https://ria(.)ru/20190822/1557801839.html; “Russia-Mozambique Talks,” Kremlin, August 22, 2019,

[7] [“Russian military sent to fight Islamists in Africa,”] Lenta, September 8, 2019, https://lenta(.)ru/news/2019/09/08/mozambique/; “No Russian military servicemen in Mozambique, Kremlin says – TASS,” Club of Mozambique, October 8, 2019, https://clubofmozambique(.)com/news/no-russian-military-servicemen-in-mozambique-kremlin-says-tass-144037/.

[8] Pjotr Sauer, “7 Kremlin-Linked Mercenaries Killed in Mozambique in October — Military Sources,” The Moscow Times, October 31, 2019, https://www.themoscowtimes(.)com/2019/10/31/7-kremlin-linked-mercenaries-killed-in-mozambique-in-october-sources-a67996; Salem Solomon, “Military Contractor Deaths Raise Questions About Russia’s Security Presence in Africa,” Voice of America, November 4, 2019, https://www.voanews.com/africa/military-contractor-deaths-raise-questions-about-russias-security-presence-africa.

[9] “Russia & Nigeria ink deal for delivery of MI-35 combat helicopters,” RT, October 23, 2019, https://www.rt(.)com/business/471604-russia-niger-helicopters-contract/.

[10] [“Medvedev approved a draft agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of the Congo on military cooperation,”] Interfax, October 28, 2019, https://militarynews(.)ru/story.asp?rid=1&nid=520568&lang=RU.

[11] “Meeting with President of the Central African Republic Faustin Archange Touadera,” The Kremlin, October 23, 2019, http://en.kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/61884.

[12] “Meeting with President of the Central African Republic Faustin Archange Touadera,” The Kremlin, October 23, 2019, http://en.kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/61884.

[13] Andrew Roth, “Central African Republic considers hosting Russian military base,” The Guardian, October 25, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/25/central-african-republic-russia-military-base.  

[14] [“The President of Namibia Asked Putin for Military Advisors,”] Riafan, October 23, 2019, https://riafan(.)ru/1222088-prezident-namibii-poprosil-u-putina-pomoshi-voennykh-sovetnikov.

[15] [“About the meeting of the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation for the Middle East and African Countries, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia ML Bogdanov with the Permanent Secretary of the “Sahel Five” Maman Sambo Sidiku,”] Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, October 25, 2019, http://www.mid(.)ru/ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/3866517

[16] Viktor Baranets, [“Another 5 African countries request military bases in Russia,”] Komsomolskaya Pravda, October 28, 2019, https://www.kp(.)ru/daily/27047/4113453/.

[17] Nataliya Bugayova and Darina Regio, “The Kremlin’s Campaign in Africa,” Institute for the Study of War, August 23, 2019, http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/kremlins-campaign-africa.

[18] “Meeting the Heads of African News Agencies,” The Kremlin, October 23, 2019, http://en.kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/61890; [“African media is ready to renew contractual base with Russian media,”] TASS, October 24, 2019, https://tass(.)ru/obschestvo/7042564.

[19] [“African media is ready to renew contractual base with Russian media,”] TASS, October 24, 2019, https://tass(.)ru/obschestvo/7042564.

[20] “Meeting the Heads of African News Agencies,” The Kremlin, October 23, 2019, http://en.kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/61890.

[21] Nataliya Bugayova and Darina Regio, “”The Kremlin’s Campaign in Africa: Assessment Update,” Institute for the Study of War, August 20, 2019, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/ISW%20-%20The%20Kremlin%20Campaign%20in%20Africa%20-%20August%202019.pdf.

[22] [“Russian Foreign Ministry supports expansion of TASS network in Africa,”] TASS, October 23, 2019, https://tass(.)ru/obschestvo/7035287.

[23] Anton Troianovski, “‘A New Message’: Russia Trains Its Propaganda Machine on Africa,” New York Times, October 29, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/29/world/europe/africa-russia-sochi.html.

[24] [“RT and Sputnik will education African journalists,”] Radio France Internationale, October 23, 2019, http://ru.rfi(.)fr/россия/20191023-rt-sputnik-africa-summit-sochi.

[25] Frederick W. Kagan, Nataliya Bugayova, and Jennifer Cafarella, “Confronting the Russian Challenge: A New Approach for the U.S.,” Institute for the Study of War, June 2019, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/ISW%20CTP%20Report%20-%20Confronting%20the%20Russian%20Challenge%20-%20June%202019.pdf.

[26] Nataliya Bugayova and Darina Regio, “”The Kremlin’s Campaign in Africa: Assessment Update,” Institute for the Study of War, August 20, 2019, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/ISW%20-%20The%20Kremlin%20Campaign%20in%20Africa%20-%20August%202019.pdf.

[27] “Russia and Rwanda agreed to construct the first Centre of Nuclear Science and Technologies in Rwanda,” ROSATOM, October 24, 2019, https://rosatom(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/russia-and-rwanda-agreed-to-construct-the-first-centre-of-nuclear-science-and-technologies-in-rwanda/?sphrase_id=908002.

[28] “Russia and Ethiopia sign an Intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy,” ROSATOM, October 23, 2019, https://rosatom(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/russia-and-ethiopia-sign-an-intergovernmental-agreement-on-cooperation-in-the-peaceful-use-of-atomic/?sphrase_id=908005.

[29] Ahmed, Eljechtimi, “Russia’s VEB signs deal to build two billion euro refinery in Morocco,” KFGO, 23 October, 2019, https://kfgo(.)com/news/articles/2019/oct/23/russias-veb-signs-deal-to-build-two-billion-euro-refinery-in-morocco-report/950227/?refer-section=business.

[30] Lukoil owns a share in the deep-water project on block OML-140 offshore Nigeria since 2014. Eklavya Gupte and Rosemary Griffin, “Nigeria and Russia to 'widen and deepen' energy cooperation: Novak,” S&P Global, October 24, 2019, https://www.spglobal(.)com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/natural-gas/102419-nigeria-and-russia-to-widen-and-deepen-energy-cooperation-novak; “Nigerian state oil firm signs memorandum to work with Russia's Lukoil,” Financial Post, October 24, 2019, https://business.financialpost.com/pmn/business-pmn/nigerian-state-oil-firm-signs-memorandum-to-work-with-russias-lukoil.

[31] “Oil, diamonds and nuclear power: Russia eyes Africa business,” France 24, October 18, 2019, https://www.france24.com/en/20191018-oil-diamonds-and-nuclear-power-russia-eyes-africa-business.

[32] [“Russia will build a gas pipeline in the Congo,”] Tass, 23 October, 2019, https(:)//tass.ru/ekonomika/7035160.

[33] Russian state gas corporation Gazprom has developed offshore gas fields in Algeria since 2010. “Foreign Projects: Algeria,” Gazprom, accessed November 7, 2019, https://www.gazprom(.)com/projects/algeria/; Lukoil has a stake in the Etinde deep-water offshore drilling project in Cameroon since 2014 and drilled two appraisal wells in 2018. Ian Lewis, “Etinde gas export project hangs in doubt,” Petroleum Economist, June 11, 2019,  https://www.petroleum-economist.com/articles/midstream-downstream/lng/2019/etinde-gas-export-project-hangs-in-doubt; Russian state oil corporation Rosneft owns a 30% stake in the Zohr gas field in Egypt since 2017.  “Update 1-Rosneft says gas output at Zohr in Egypt surges to 11.3 bcm in H1,” Reuters, August 14, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/rosneft-egypt-gas/update-1-rosneft-says-gas-output-at-zohr-in-egypt-surges-to-11-3-bcm-in-h1-idUKL8N25A3I4L; Lukoil purchased a 50% stake in the West Esh El-Mallaha (WEEM) project in Egypt in 2002. Lukoil constructed a 100-kilometer pipeline to oil terminals on the Red Sea to export oil. Lukoil joined the WEEM Extension project in nearby oil fields in February 2009. Expansion operations began in 2010, and Lukoil acquired a 20-year development license for the venture. Lukoil joined the Meleiha project in the Western Desert of Egypt in 1995 as a 24% stakeholder; the contract is valid until 2024. “International Projects,” Lukoil, accessed November 7, 2019, http://www.lukoil(.)com/Business/Upstream/Overseas?wid=wid_GCOY0IAsE6ByJsUasUSpg; Lukoil entered a joint venture in the Deepwater Tano/Cape Three Points Project offshore of Ghana in March 2014. “Ghana,” Lukoil, accessed November 7, 2019, http://upstreamwest.lukoil(.)com/en/Activities/Ghana; Russian state geological corporation Rosgeologia signed a cooperation agreement with Sudan to develop an offshore oil plot in July 2018. The agreement calls for Rosgeologia to drill exploration wells and survey the area for future joint projects with the Sudanese Ministry of Oil and Gas. [“Russia and Sudan agree on the development of “Block 15” on the shelf of the Read Sea,”] RIA Novosti, 23 October, 2019, https(:)//ria.ru/20180723/1525168506.html.

[34] Zarubezhneft has ongoing negotiations with Egypt to join an existing oil project. Zarubezhneft aimed to finalize agreements during the Russia-Africa Summit, but this has not been confirmed. [“Sergey Kudryashov: when we bought a stake in Kharyaga from Total, large companies began to talk with Zarubezhneft differently,”] Interfax, April 8, 2019, https://www.interfax((.))ru/interview/657460; https://www.finanz((.))ru/novosti/aktsii/zarubezhneft-v-oktyabre-mozhet-podpisat-dokumenty-o-vkhozhdenii-v-proekty-v-egipte-1028577642; [“A Russian company wants to take part in an oil and gas project offshore Egypt,”] RNS, October 24, 2019, https://rns(.)online/energy/Rossiiskaya-kompaniya-hochet-prinyat-uchastie-neftegazovom-proekte-na-shelfe-Egipta-2019-10-24/; Russian oil company Zarubezhneft’s General Director participated in a meeting between Putin and the Angolan President in Moscow in April, 2019 to discuss “possible cooperation” focused on existing onshore and offshore oil fields. “Zarubezhneft JSC develops cooperation with Angola,” Zarubezhneft Press Center, April 5, 2019, https://www.zarubezhneft(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/513/; “Zarubezhneft JSC develops cooperation with Angola,” O&G Links, April 5, 2019, https://oglinks(.)news/zarubezhneft/pr/jsc-develops-cooperation-with-angola; Zarubezhneft signed an agreement with the Gabon Oil Company to develop the Mboumba oil field in September 2017. The discussions are ongoing. “Gabon: GOC partners Zarubezhneft,” African Energy, September 14, 2017, https://www.africa-energy(.)com/article/gabon-goc-partners-zarubezhneft; [“Russia wants to introduce its Zarubezhneft company in the oil sector of Gabon,”] Ecofin Agency, September 7, 2019, https://www.agenceecofin(.)com/investissement/0709-69026-la-russie-souhaite-introduire-sa-compagnie-zarubezhneft-dans-le-secteur-petrolier-du-gabon; Barry Morgan, “Russians move to get ahead of Gabon oil game in negotiations,” Upstream, October 31, 2019, https://www.upstreamonline(.)com/weekly/russians-move-to-get-ahead-of-gabon-oil-game-in-negotiations/2-1-695371.  Zarubezhneft’s General Director participated in a meeting between Putin and the President of Congo in May 2019 and discussed “possible cooperation.” “Head of Zarubezhneft JSC Sergey Kudryashov held meeting with the President of Congo Denis Sassou Ngu,” Zarubezhneft, May 17, 2019, https://www.zarubezhneft(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/522/. Zarubezhneft signed an MOU with the South Sudanese Ministry of Petroleum to begin exploring the country’s open acreage and trading, and implement enhanced oil recovery technology and other maintenance programs in November 2018. “Russian oil firm signs initial exploration deal with South Sudan: minister,” Reuters, November 20, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-southsudan-gazprom-neft/russian-oil-firm-signs-initial-exploration-deal-with-south-sudan-minister-idUSKCN1NP1ZS.

[35] “Oil, Diamonds and Nuclear Power: Russia Eyes Africa Business,” France 24, October 18, 2019, https://www.france24.com/en/20191018-oil-diamonds-and-nuclear-power-russia-eyes-africa-business; Huseyin Erdogan, “Rosneft, Oranto to Cooperate on Energy Projects in Africa,” AA Energy, May 26, 2018, https://www.aa.com(.)tr/en/energy/natural-gas/rosneft-oranto-to-cooperate-on-energy-projects-in-africa/20219.

[36] [“Rostec Agrees on the Implementation of Mining Projects in Africa,”]  RIA Novosti, October 24, 2019, https://ria(.)ru/20191024/1560148634.html.

[37] African Energy Chamber, “Rosgeo to start operations in Equatorial Guinea,” Africa News, 23 October, 2019, https://www.africanews(.)com/2019/10/23/rosgeo-to-start-operations-in-equatorial-guinea//;

[38] “Rwanda and Russia sign cooperation agreement,” Mining Review Africa, 24 October, 2019, https://www.miningreview(.)com/battery-metals/rwanda-and-russia-sign-mining-and-hydrocarbon-cooperation-agreement/

[40] [“Rosgeologia signs memorandum of cooperation with Ministry of Mineral Resources of South Sudan,”] Rosgelogia Press Center, 23 October, 2019, https://www.rosgeo(.)com/ru/content/rosgeologiya-podpisala-memorandum-s-ministerstvom-mineralnyh-resursov-yuzhnogo-sudana.

[41] “Rosneft, INP, and ENH Expand Cooperation in Mozambique,” Rosneft Press Center, 22 August, 2019, https://www.rosneft(.)com/press/releases/item/196635/.

[42] Rosgeo signed a cooperation agreement with Algeria’s State Geological Exploration Company to provide oil survey support and training for miners in 2018. [“Rosgeology Strengthens Cooperation with Algeria,”] Rosgeology, July 11, 2019, https://www.rosgeo(.)com/ru/content/rosgeologiya-ukreplyaet-sotrudnichestvo-s-alzhirom; “NOC Discusses Joint Cooperation with Rosgeo,” National Oil Corporation, October 6, 2018, https://noc.ly/index(.)php/en/new-4/4021-noc-discusses-joint-cooperation-with-rosgeo; Rosgeo signed a cooperation agreement with Madagascar to evaluate the prospect of future joint ventures in Madagascar’s mineral and oil fields in May 2018. [“Rosgeology and Madagascar Signed a Cooperation Agreement,”] RIA Novosti, May 24, 2018, https://ria(.)ru/20180524/1521259830.html.

[43] Umer Jamshaid, “Sierra Leone Looks Forward to Russia Taking over Revoked Mining Licenses- Minister,” UrduPoint, 29 October, 2019, https://www.urdupoint(.)com/en/world/sierra-leone-looks-forward-to-russia-taking-o-748372.html.

[44] Umer Jamshaid, “Sierra Leone Hopes Russia To Open Embassy By Year's End - Mineral Resources Minister,”UrduPoint, 29 October, 2019, https://www.urdupoint(.)com/en/world/sierra-leone-hopes-russia-to-open-embassy-by-748369.html; Abdul Rashid Thomas, “Russia to Help Sierra Leone and Other African Countries Digitize Their Mining Industry,” The Sierra Leone Telegraph, October 26, 2019, https://www(.)thesierraleonetelegraph.com/russia-to-help-sierra-leone-and-other-african-countries-digitize-their-mining-industry.

[45] [“Meeting with Namibian President Hage Gottfried Heynobom,”] Kremlin, October 23, 2019, http://kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/61882.

[46] “Uranium in Namibia,” World Nuclear Association, August, 2019, https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-g-n/namibia.aspx; [“Rosatom Resumes Exploration of Uranium in the Aranos Region of Namibia,”] RIA Novosti, October 21, 2019, https://ria(.)ru/20191021/1560034439.html; Russian has a uranium projects in Tanzania, which is currently reported to be suspended. Russia will likely seek to renew the effort as Rosatom is making a long term push for Africa’s nuclear energy market.

[47] Lobaye Invest, a security company reportedly linked to Putin ally and Wagner Group funder Yevgeny Prigozhin, provides security for diamond and gold mines in the CAR. Leonid Bershidsky, “Death, Diamonds and Russia’s Africa Project,” Bloomberg, August 4, 2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2018-08-04/russia-in-africa-death-diamonds-and-intrigue.

[48] Angolan officials stated that they will cooperate with Russian state-owned diamond mining company Alrosa to boost Angola’s diamond exports during the Russia-Africa Summit [“Angola Wants to Increase Cooperation with Russia on Diamond Mining”] RIA Novosti, October 21, 2019, https://ria(.)ru/20191023/1560122730.html; Alrosa signed a joint-exploration venture deal with Angolan mining company Endiama to develop a profitable diamond mining industry within Angola on April 4, 2019. “Alrosa and Endiama Signed a Memorandum of Understanding,” Alrosa Press Center, April 4, 2019, http://eng.alrosa(.)ru/alrosa-and-endiama-signed-a-memorandum-of-understanding/; Alrosa already owns a 41% stake Cataoca Lrd, the largest diamond mining company in Angola. “Alrosa Acts as Co-organizer of Session at Russia-Africa Economic Forum,” Alrosa Press Center, October 23, 2019, http://eng.alrosa(.)ru/alrosa-acts-as-co-organizer-of-session-at-russia-africa-economic-forum/; Alrosa invested $12 million in a joint diamond exploration venture with Zimbabwe’s state diamond company in July 2019. Kevin, Samaita, “Alrosa Invests $12m in Diamond Exploration in Zimbabwe,” Business Live, July 16, 2019, https://www.businesslive(.)co.za/bd/world/africa/2019-07-16-alrosa-invests-12m-in-diamond-exploration-in-zimbabwe/; “Alrosa Co-organizes Diamond Session,” The Herald, October 24, 2019, https://www.herald.co(.)zw/alrosa-co-organises-diamond-session.

[49] Nordgold claims to have doubled its investment in Burkina Faso from 2017 to 2018 and planned to increase investment in 2019, including constructing solar power arrays for two of its mines. “Nordgold Expands its Investment Programmes in Burkina Faso,” Nordgold, March 28, 2019, http://m.nordgold(.)com/investors-and-media/news/nordgold-expands-its-investment-programmes-in-burkina-faso/; Cecilia Keating, “Nordgold Plans 13MW of Solar with Storage for Burkina Faso Mines,” PV Tech, October 23, 2019, https://www.pv-tech(.)org/news/nordgold-plans-13mw-of-solar-with-storage-in-burkina-faso-mines; Nordgold received a 15-year mining permit from Guinea for its Lefa mine in February, 2019. Nordgold has reportedly invested over $1 billion in Guinea and announced plans to invest $360 million more into the Lefa mine. Cecilia Jamasmie, “Russia’s Nordgold to Invest Over $360m in Guinea Mine,” Mining.com, February 7, 2019, https://www.mining(.)com/russias-nordgold-invest-360m-guinea-mine-2034.

[50] Rusal’s Friguia site is one of the largest employers in Guinea and includes a 160km railway network. https://rusal(.)ru/en/about/21/; Polina Devitt, “Rusal Starts Shipping Bauxite from Guinea's Dian-Dian Mine,” Reuters, June 19, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-rusal-guinea-bauxite/rusal-starts-shipping-bauxite-from-guineas-dian-dian-mine-idUSKBN1JF1UB.

[51] “South Africa,” Nornickel, accessed on November 7, 2019, https://www.nornickel(.)com/business/assets/south-africa.

[52] Karen Allen, “Madagascar Exploits Highlight Russian Influence Peddling in Africa,” Daily Maverick, April 11, 2019, https://www.dailymaverick.co(.)za/article/2019-04-11-madagascar-exploits-highlight-russian-influence-peddling-in-africa.