Jaysh al-Mahdi

The Jaysh al-Mahdi (JAM, جيش المهدي) militia emerged in 2003 as a security guarantor in Sadrist-dominated neighborhoods. The militia also defended Sadrist political institutions and Muqtada’s interests. 

Special Groups Regenerate

Iranian-backed Special Groups in Iraq launched an offensive that cost them Basra and Sadr City but have regenerated in order to disrupt the Iraqi government with assassinations and spectacular attacks