Daily Libya Tracker

Libya Conflict: Situation Update

By: Spencer Butts

Latest U.S. & Coalition Operations and Statements

AUGUST 2: China’s Assistant Foreign Minister, Wu Hailong, met with the UN secretary-general’s special envoy to Libya, Abdul Elah al-Khatib, and expressed China’s desire to see the UN play a more prominent role in negotiating an end to the conflict in Libya. Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi stated that China continued its support of a political solution to the crisis. While China respects the AU’s mediation efforts, he believes the UN should play a larger role. (Xinhua)

AUGUST 2: Allied countries are working to find a solution that will allow the National Transitional Council to access frozen assets while keeping the Qaddafi regime locked out of its overseas investments. If the regime can reacquire its assets, it could give them an important boost and enable them to prolong the conflict. Apart from Western countries, Qaddafi invested money in the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia, and many African countries, some of which may willingly send him money if given the chance. (LA Times


Latest Pro-Qaddafi Movements and Statements 

AUGUST 1: Saif al-Islam Qaddafi vowed to continue the war against the rebels regardless of whether or not NATO stops its air campaign. (Reuters)
AUGUST 1: Libya’s Undersecretary for Expatriates, Immigrants and Refugee Affairs, Abulhadi Lahweej, asked Filipino workers to return to Tripoli, stating that the government had contained the violence to rebel-held areas. Raul Hernandez, the Philippine Foreign Affairs spokesman, stated that although the government of the Philippines recognizes Qaddafi as the legitimate leader of Libya, it will continue the policy of not deploying workers to Libya. The country evacuated over 14,000 Filipinos in March, though approximately 2,000 more (primarily health workers) remain in Libya. (AP, Gulf News)

Latest Opposition Movements and Statements

AUGUST 2: Rebel forces claimed to have advanced to the center of Zlitan in heavy fighting with loyalist troops. Small rebel units in Brega have also engaged with Qaddafi forces in battles that lasted for a few hours in the town’s eastern residential district. (AFP)
AUGUST 1: The family of General Abdel Fatah Younis was openly critical of the National Transitional Council’s attempts to uncover the motives and perpetrators of the assassination. Muatsem Abdel Fatah Younis, General Younis’s son, promised that if the proposed NTC investigation committee was unsuccessful, “we will refer the case to the international tribunal.” (Reuters, AP)




U.S. & Coalition Operations and Statements


AUGUST 2: China’s Assistant Foreign Minister, Wu Hailong, met with the UN secretary-general’s special envoy to Libya, Abdul Elah al-Khatib, and expressed China’s desire to see the UN play a more prominent role in negotiating an end to the conflict in Libya. Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi stated that China continued its support of a political solution to the crisis. While China respects the AU’s mediation efforts, he believes the UN should play a larger role. (Xinhua)
AUGUST 2: Allied countries are working to find a solution that will allow the National Transitional Council to access frozen assets while keeping the Qaddafi regime locked out of its overseas investments. If the regime can reacquire its assets, it could give them an important boost and enable them to prolong the conflict. Apart from Western countries, Qaddafi invested money in the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia, and many African countries, some of which may willingly send him money if given the chance. (LA Times)
AUGUST 2: Sergei Vershinin, the head of Russia’s Foreign Ministry’s Middle East and North Africa Department, characterized the fighting on the ground in Libya as a “dead end.” Vershinin believes that the only possible way to broker a solution to the conflict is through new negotiation efforts. (AFP)
AUGUST 1: NATO began its operation in Ramadan by bombing military targets, including ammunition dumps and missile systems, and dropping leaflets over Tripoli. (Reuters, All Headline News)
AUGUST 1: French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe pledged to release $259 million in frozen funds to the National Transitional Council to buy humanitarian supplies. (Al Jazeera, Reuters, RTT News)
AUGUST 1: The Italian Coast Guard intercepted an overcrowded boat carrying 296 African migrants traveling to Italy from Libya. Twenty-five people were discovered to have died below decks. (AP, BBC)
JULY 31: UK Defense Minister Liam Fox restated that Britain will continue the NATO air campaign in Libya for as long as is necessary. He indicated that “we have both the military capability and the resolve to continue pursuing and fulfilling United Nations resolution 1973 as long as is required.” Fox also commented that “if other countries believe that there is a need for a ground force, it would require a new UN resolution – I don’t think the chances of such a resolution are even remotely possible.” He indicated that the rebels would have to take more care in their governance and marginalize militant groups. (Reuters, Al Jazeera, BBC, Reuters)
JULY 31: The German Foreign Ministry announced that it had declared Hisham al-Sharif, a senior Libyan diplomat, ‘persona non grata’ because of his allegiance to Qaddafi. They ordered al-Sharif and his family to leave Germany. (Reuters)
JULY 30: France’s Defense Minister, Gerard Longuet, stated that France would relocate its Rafale fighter jets to NATO’s airbase in Sigonella, Sicily, to maintain the NATO air campaign in Libya. France is planning to withdraw its aircraft carrier from the operation. Basing the jets in Sicily will place them closer to Libya than their current location on the aircraft carrier in Corsica. Longuet stated that “time belongs to us, we must not be prisoners to a calendar or to technical constraints.” (Reuters, Bloomberg, Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JULY 29: NATO airstrikes destroyed three satellite transmission dishes of the Libyan Broadcasting Authority, though spokesmen for the organization claimed that they did not cause lasting damage to Libya’s television infrastructure. The alliance explained that the regime had used state television “to systematically oppress and threaten civilians and to incite attacks against them.” Some experts believe NATO may have also feared that the regime would use the station for propaganda focusing on Younis’s killing. However, Libyan state TV was still on the air after the bombings. (BBC, AP, BBC, Reuters, AFP, WSJ)
JULY 29: The UN committee monitoring sanctions against Libya will consider regime and rebel requests to unfreeze funds to pay for humanitarian needs. Jose Filipe Moraes Cabral, Portugal’s UN Ambassador, announced that Security Council members believed the shortages of medicine and other supplies constituted a legitimate exception to the sanctions regime. However, the committee wants concrete requests from both Qaddafi and the National Transitional Council; Cabral expects that the UN or other international agencies will purchase and distribute the needed goods. (AP)
JULY 29: Senator John McCain (R-AZ) warned the National Transitional Council that they may alienate their recent U.S. and international support if they do not take “decisive action” to stop human rights abuses committed by their fighters. McCain sent a letter to the NTC’s head of foreign affairs, Mahmoud Jibril, stating, “I urge you to investigate recently documented abuses, hold people accountable as necessary, and ensure that opposition military forces are abiding by the principles of justice and human rights.” (The Independent)
JULY 29: UK Foreign Minister Alistair Burt responded to the killing of Abdel Fatah Younis, stating “We agreed that it is important that those responsible are held to account through proper judicial processes.” There are fears that Younis’s assassination will shake Western faith in the rebels. French military spokesman Colonel Thierry Burkhard announced that France would not change its tactics or strategy. (AP)
JULY 29: Norway has scheduled its last flights for July 30. NATO announced that they will continue their air campaign timetable without Norway’s assets. (AFP)
JULY 29: South Africa’s ambassador to the UN advised countries supporting the Libyan rebels that they were in danger of violating UN sanctions. He went on to criticize the calls for Qaddafi to step down. (BBC)
JULY 28: The HMS Iron Duke finished its deployment and returned to Portsmouth. (BBC)
JULY 28: Portugal’s Foreign Ministry granted diplomatic recognition to the National Transitional Council. Portugal supports “the Libyan people’s aspirations in the construction of a free and democratic society.” (Reuters)
JULY 28: Austria is looking for options to unfreeze up to $1.7 billion of Libyan assets to transfer to the National Transitional Council. Their Foreign Ministry spokesman, Alexander Schallenberg, announced that they need legal documents from Benghazi certifying that the rebel-established bank there is a legally valid central bank “identical to the one in Tripoli” to make the transfer. (Reuters)
JULY 27: Italian Defense Minister Ignazio La Russa met with French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet to discuss their country’s stances on Libya. The two confirmed that their countries share the same aspirations for the future of the country and agree on the need for negotiations between the regime and the National Transitional Council.  (Xinhua)
JULY 27: British military chiefs say there is no indication that Qaddafi’s military is on the verge of running out of oil. The long queues for civilians at gas stations in Tripoli do not accurately reflect the amount of oil available for the military. Their reports insist that “there is no prospect of Gaddafi running out of oil for military purposes any time soon.” (Sky News)
JULY 27: The UK expelled Libyan diplomats representing the regime while also recognizing the National Transitional Council as the “sole governmental authority” in Libya. Foreign Secretary William Hague insisted that it was not a change to the UK’s policy of recognizing “countries, not governments” because this recognition was political, not legal. He invited the NTC to send diplomats to London. This new step will allow the government to provide “greater practical assistance.” Hague detailed the plan to unfreeze £91 million in frozen assets to the NTC. (BBC, AP, WSJ, NY Times, Al Jazeera, AP, WP)
JULY 27: A team of marines and sailors from the HMS Sutherland boarded a vessel in international waters near Libya suspected of transporting weapons and conducted a thorough search. They determined that the vessel was not in violation of the embargo. (British Forces News)
JULY 27: Khaled Hemidi is accusing NATO of killing his wife and three children in an airstrike and is seeking an initial compensation of €100,000 as well as unspecified damages in a Belgian civil court. He claims that the airstrike west of Tripoli on June 20 targeted his father, who escaped unharmed. (AFP)
JULY 27: British Foreign Secretary William Hague expressed dismay over the video featuring Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, the convicted mastermind of the 1988 Lockerbie bombing, at a recent pro-Qaddafi rally. His presence caused Hague to dismiss the medical advice that secured al-Megrahi’s early release as “pretty much worthless.” Scottish politicians also reacted angrily, labeling the footage as an “embarrassment.” (NY Times)
JULY 27: Italy’s Senate voted to extend funding for the country’s military operations in Libya, as well as Iraq, Afghanistan, and Lebanon, but reduced the allocated funds from €911 million to €694 million. (Bloomberg)
JULY 27: An anonymous senior NATO official admitted that the alliance “may have overmatched the military perspective.” The official stated that Qaddafi’s forces are still confident and capable. (WP)
JULY 26: Read Admiral Filippo Foffi and his staff transferred from ITS Garibaldi to ITS San Guisto, making San Guisto the flag ship of the NATO Maritime Task Group supportin Operation Unified Protector. San Guisto is an amphibious transport dock ship. (NATO)
JULY 26: The International Criminal Court announced that countries must not allow Qaddafi to escape prosecution. Florence Olara, the spokeswoman for the court’s chief prosecutor, stated that any new Libyan government is obligated to arrest Qaddafi and turn him over. She declared that the arrest warrants “cannot go away.” The UN Security Council could pass a resolution to suspend a warrant from The Hague, but Council members would have to revisit the resolution every twelve months. (The Guardian)
JULY 26: Italian Interior Minister Roberto Maroni announced an agreement to assist the National Transitional Council in structuring and training its security forces. Ahmed Hussein al-Darrat, the rebel government’s Interior Minister, also expressed hopes to work closely with Italy to solve the immigration crisis. (Reuters)
JULY 26: Bulgaria is proceeding with its plan to expel Libyan diplomatic consul Ibrahim al-Furis after the National Transitional Council denied that he had joined them. Al-Furis had stormed the embassy, refused to leave, and insisted on waiting for the NTC to confirm him as legal representative in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian government pledged to suspend contact with the embassy until it is clear who is in charge. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 26: NATO accused Qaddafi of establishing military installations in civilian areas to dissuade airstrikes and misleading journalists by bringing them to fabricated bombing sites in attempts to discredit the West. Canadian Colonel Roland Lavoie stated that Qaddafi forces occupied former stables, agricultural facilities, warehouses, factories, and food processing plants, “causing them to lose their formerly protected status and rending them valid and necessary military objectives for NATO.” (Reuters, Al Arabiya)
JULY 26: UN envoy Abdul Elah al-Khatib met with Qaddafi Prime Minister Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi and learned that they still insisted that NATO cease its airstrikes before any negotiations begin. Al-Khatib acknowledged that the two sides are far from crafting a political solution. However, both the rebels and the government want to continue to pursue an end to the conflict through the UN, despite their differences. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)
JULY 26: A UN mission found that parts of Qaddafi-controlled Libya are facing humanitarian crises.  Despite positive portrayals from the government, many areas face fuel shortages, rising food prices, stretched medical systems, and cash crunches. Some hospitals cannot operate at full capacity due to the exodus of thousands of foreign health workers from the country. According to Libyan experts, fuel supplies may also run out in two weeks. However, the mission did observe a degree of normalcy in Tripoli. (NY Times, AP)
JULY 26: British Foreign Secretary William Hague announced that a political solution that allows Qaddafi to remain in Libya is acceptable despite previous comments indicating he wanted Qaddafi to leave the country.  Following the approach of the U.S. State Department, Hague insisted that “it’s for them to determine their future, not for those outside to try to lay down that future.” Hague acknowledged that such a solution may result in Qaddafi not having to face charges in the International Criminal Court. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé echoed Hague’s sentiments – Juppé would support the rebels if they allowed Qaddafi to stay in the country, but believes that the regime leader should stand trial. (Reuters, BBC, NY Times, AP, CSM, Middle East Online)
JULY 26: The HMS Sutherland will assist in enforcing the UN arms embargo on Libya. (BBC)
JULY 25: NATO refuted a claim made by a Maltese newspaper that the alliance had intercepted a Libyan Scud missile that was headed towards Malta. A spokesman insisted that there is no evidence that the regime has used such ballistic weapons. Malta’s Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi lambasted the newspaper, labeling it “journalism of the worst quality.” The Libyan embassy in Malta called the claims “completely baseless and false.” (Times of Malta)
JULY 25: Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff admitted that Qaddafi forces have adjusted their tactics to fight the rebels, leading to a stalemate on the ground. Even though Qaddafi has not stepped down from power, Mullen believes the air campaign has brought additional traditional pressure against the regime and is a strategy that will succeed in bringing down Qaddafi. Mullen also clarified that the U.S. has not made any decision to arm the National Transitional Council. (Politico, Al Jazeera, Middle East Online)
JULY 25: UN envoy Abdul Elah al-Khatib traveled to Benghazi to meet with officials from the National Transitional Council. They discussed ideas and possible political solutions, but did not form any concrete plans. Al-Khatib is traveling to Tripoli to meet with regime representatives. (Reuters)
JULY 24: Residents speculate that explosions in Tripoli early Sunday morning were from a NATO airstrike targeting an intelligence building. NATO also hit a surface-to-air missile launcher and a tank around Tripoli. At Zlitan, aircraft bombed two ammunition storage facilities and a command and control node. Other airstrikes hit an ammunition storage facility at Waddan, a tank near Zintan, and a military storage facility at Brega. NATO also bombed one tank and one multiple rocket launcher around Gharyan. (Reuters, NATO)
JULY 24: German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle announced that Germany will extend a $143 million loan to the National Transitional Council for civil and humanitarian purposes. (Reuters, AP)
JULY 24: Thirty-eight out of fifty-four of National Journal’s National Security Insiders strongly believe that U.S. recognition of the National Transitional Council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people was the right decision. They are also in favor of releasing the frozen funds to the NTC, but divided on whether the money should go towards purchasing weapons. (National Journal, WP)
JULY 23: Airstrikes around Tripoli bombed two command and control nodes, two surface-to-air missile launchers, and one anti-aircraft gun. Sources inside the capital suspect that the targets were either the External Security headquarters or weapon storages. Other airstrikes at Brega targeted a military storage facility, a multiple rocket-launcher, a command and control node, and an armored vehicle.  Aircraft hit a military storage facility at Al Khum. At Waddan, jets bombed a military storage facility. Around Zintan, NATO hit an artillery piece. Aircraft bombed four military storage facilities and a tank at Zlitan. (AP, NATO)
JULY 23: The Obama administration is looking for ways to release the $34 billion in frozen Libyan assets to the National Transitional Council. Currently, there is only a few hundred million dollars that the government can quickly release, while legal regulations restrict the rest. Because countries seized most of the money under legally binding sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council, unfreezing the accounts requires a consensus vote of the UN sanctions committee. (WP)
JULY 23: The United States is looking into allegations that Algeria allowed a ship transporting weapons for the Qaddafi regime to dock at the Algerian port of Djen Djen on July 19. From there, reports say the armaments traveled over the border into Libya. If true, allowing the weapons shipments would be a violation of UN resolutions. Algeria’s Foreign Ministry denied the charges. (Reuters Africa, Reuters)
JULY 22: NATO airstrikes hit a military storage facility in Al Khums as well as a military storage facility and four armed vehicles around Brega. A strike in Tripoli targeted a command and control node, and planes bombed a military storage facility at Waddan. In Zintan, aircraft hit three anti-aircraft guns, and around Zlitan airstrikes targeted a military storage facility, two tanks, two anti-aircraft guns, and one armed vehicle. (NATO)
JULY 22: Following NATO airstrikes in Libya’s west, the Tunisian state news agency announced that the Tunisian army is reinforcing the border to prevent any spillover of the conflict into its territory. (AP)
JULY 22: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini told rebel spokesman Ali al-Issawi that, while he believes impunity for Qaddafi is a mistake, Italy will support whatever the Libyan people decide. Frattini also told al-Issawi that the first installment of $503 million in cash and fuel will reach Benghazi shortly. (AP)
JULY 22: NATO attack helicopters have been conducting raids along the Libyan coastline from Brega to Zuwaya to destabilize loyalist forces. (Jane’s)
JULY 22: UN envoy Abdul Elah al-Khatib hopes that the regime and the rebels will accept a plan to implement a ceasefire and create a power-sharing government that does not involve Qaddafi. The plan would immediately establish a transitional authority staffed equally from the rebels and the government. However, both sides are publicly skeptical about the effectiveness of negotiations. (Reuters)
JULY 21: Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodríguez Zapatero met with opposition leader Mahmoud Jibril and expressed his support of the National Transitional Council. Zapatero told Jibril that he should strengthen the NTC so it’s prepared to face challenges after Qaddafi falls. (AFP)
JULY 21: NATO airstrikes hit a military storage facility at Brega and a radar at Sirte. Aircraft bombed a military storage facility, two surface-to-air missile launchers, and five anti-aircraft guns around Tripoli. Other strikes targeted a military storage facility at Waddan and, near Zlitan, three military storage facilities, one military facility, one surface-to-air missile launcher, one multiple rocket launcher, one tank, one armed vehicle, and three military vehicles. (NATO)
JULY 21: Israel’s Vice Prime Minister Moshe Ya’alon stated that Libya has become Palestine’s newest source of weaponry. He claimed that Hamas is exploiting the unrest in the country to purchase arms from Libyan smugglers. (Jerusalem Post)
JULY 21: The International Maritime Organization is concerned that the conflict in Libya is diverting naval assets from anti-piracy patrols. The organization reports that attacks by Somali pirates rose to record levels in the first half of 2011. (Bloomberg)
JULY 21: Italy has joined the United States, Britain, and France in expressing support that the question of Qaddafi’s future in Libya after leaving power should be left to the people of Libya. This leaves the option open for Qaddafi to avoid exile or trial on war crimes charges. (AP, Bloomberg)
JULY 21: The British Minister for International Security Strategy, Gerald Howarth, announced that the coalition will not pause its operations for Ramadan. NATO hopes that Qaddafi’s supply issues will prompt popular unrest during the month of fasting. (Reuters, Reuters
JULY 21: The first NATO casualty in Operation Unified Protector was recorded after a Royal Air Force serviceman died after his vehicle, part of a supply convoy, left the road and crashed in southern Italy. Authorities are investigating the cause of the accident. (BBC, AP)
JULY 21: NATO aircraft have flown 5,902 sorties over Libya and have carried out strikes against over 3,000 targets. NATO is confident that the air campaign has degraded Qaddafi’s military capabilities to the point where he is no longer capable of launching a major offensive. (Defenceweb)
JULY 21: NATO has requested that the United States commit more unmanned drones and surveillance planes to operations in Libya. The Obama administration and the Pentagon are considering the request, though some U.S. officials and commanders are against it because it would require moving the aircraft from other warzones. Currently, the United States has committed enough Predator drones to Libya for two to be in the air around the clock. They have carried out 64 strikes since April. (LA Times)
JULY 21: Chinese President Hu Jintao told South African President Jacob Zuma that China will support the African Union in crafting a solution to the Libyan conflict. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 20: NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen expressed hopes that the rebels from the east and west of Libya will unite and advance on Qaddafi. He insisted that the situation is “absolutely not a stalemate,” and that Qaddafi’s hold on the country is weakening due to strikes targeting his military capabilities and widespread defections. Rasmussen promised to continue the NATO campaign for as long as is necessary. (WSJ)
JULY 20: NATO airstrikes hit two rocket launchers and three armed vehicles near Misrata, as well as 13 targets in and around Zlitan. They also targeted two armed vehicles and a rocket launcher at Brega. (AFP)
JULY 20: Remarks made by French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe suggested that allowing Qaddafi to remain in Libya after stepping down could help end the conflict. President Sarkozy met with three rebel leaders from Misrata in Paris who came to ask for more aid and weapons. (AP, Reuters, Al Arabiya)
JULY 20: Four UK Tornado jets, whose deployment was announced July 15, arrived at the forward staging ground in southern Italy in order to increase air reconnaissance and strike capabilities over Libya. (BBC)
JULY 19: Italy’s Prime Minister has blocked investigations seeking the final location of a large shipment of weapons rumored to have been supplied to Libya. The consignment in question included 30,000 Kalashnikov AK-47 rifles, 32m rounds of ammunition, 5,000 Katyusha rockets, 400 Fagot wire-guided anti-tank missiles, and 11,000 other anti-tank weapons. The Italian navy used commercial ferries to transport the weapons between May 18 and 20 and did not disclose their destination. (The Guardian)
JULY 19: Russian President Dmitri Medvedev and German Chancellor Angela Merkel made statements comparing the situation in Syria to Libya’s conflict. Medvedev wanted to avoid similar mistakes, as Russia believes the Libyan no-fly zone led to war, while Merkel stressed that they must avoid a double standard and pressed for an international response. (AP)

JULY 19: France’s Foreign Ministry’s military spokesman, Bernard Valero, confirmed the rebels’ recent gains in the eastern oil city of Brega. (Reuters

JULY 19: Russian President Dmitry Medvedev stated that a diplomatic solution between Qaddafi and the rebels is still possible, but that supporting either side complicates the process. Russia intends to continue its search for an acceptable compromise. (Reuters)
JULY 18: A group of U.S. officials, including assistant Secretary of State for the Near East, Jeffrey Feltman, U.S. ambassador to Libya, Gene Cretz, and a senior director at the National Security Council, Derek Chollet, met with Libyan regime representatives on Saturday in Tunisia. The U.S. officials claimed they were reiterating the message that Qaddafi must step down. Senior State Department officials asserted that the talk was in no way a negotiation, and insisted that it was “a one-time thing” with no plans for further meetings. There are reports that French officials have been involved in similar talks at the Tunisian resort of Djerba. (AP, WP, BBC, LA Times)
JULY 18: Qaddafi’s former Foreign Minister, Abdel Rahman Shalgam, confessed that Libyan security services were responsible for a 1989 bombing of a French airliner that killed 170 passengers and crew. In 2009, France sentenced 6 Libyans in absentia, but Libya never claimed any responsibility for the attack. Shalgam also mentioned the 1988 Lockerbie bombing, but stated that he did not think it was solely a Libyan operation. (AFP)
JULY 18: NATO warplanes destroyed the radar at Tripoli’s civilian airport. The alliance claimed that Qaddafi forces were using the radar system to track NATO jets, therefore making it a legitimate military target. (AP)
JULY 18: South African President Jacob Zuma stated that violence is not the right answer in Libya, and that Qaddafi’s fate should be determined by negotiation. Prime Minister David Cameron acknowledged that there are differences between African leaders and NATO on the effectiveness of the military campaign. (BBC, Reuters Africa)
JULY 17: NATO airstrikes on Sunday hit targets in Tripoli’s restive eastern suburb of Tajoura. One of the bombed buildings typically housed vehicles used for African Union peacekeeping duties, but intelligence showed that Qaddafi had tanks and armored personnel carriers there that he used for the war effort. The other targets in Tripoli where three radar sites and an anti-aircraft missile launcher. (BBC, Reuters, Al Jazeera, AP, WSJ)
JULY 16: NATO reported that it flew 110 sorties and conducted 45 attacks, hitting targets around Brega, Misrata, Tripoli, and Waddan. At Brega aircraft bombed one tank, five armed vehicles, one multiple rocket launcher, and one rocket launcher. Around Misrata, strikes targeted six anti-aircraft guns and four multiple rocket launchers. NATO warplanes hit three radars, one surface-to-air missile launcher, and one military storage facility around Tripoli, and one military storage facility at Waddan. (Al Jazeera, NATO)
JULY 15: NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen warned the International Contact Group that any ceasefire between Qaddafi and the rebels would have to be “credible, verifiable, and with clear conditions” to avoid a return to violence. (RTT News)
JULY 15: NATO airstrikes hit targets in Brega, Dur at Turkiyah, Gharyan, Misrata, Tripoli, and Waddan. Planes bombed one tank, five armored fighting vehicles, one multiple rocket launcher, and seven armed vehicles around Brega. Airstrikes targeted a military storage facility at Dur at Turkiyah, a command and control building near Gharyan, and a military storage facility around Waddan. At Gharyan, planes attacked a tank and three armed vehicles. In Tripoli, airstrikes hit a radar station and a surface-to-air missile launcher. (NATO)
JULY 15: Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister John Bair announced that Canada is unable to follow the United States and other countries in unfreezing Libyan assets for the rebels because they remain under UN Security Council sanctions. Bair explained that, because Canada’s domestic laws require the government to follow the sanctions, the UN must lift them before they can act. (Montreal Gazette)
JULY 15: United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed to the International Contact Group to support the UN’s Special Envoy to Libya, Abdul Elah al-Khatib, in working towards a political solution to the conflict. Ban Ki-moon brought up the humanitarian crises Libya faces, and urged both sides to allow unhindered access to deliver humanitarian assistance. (UN News Center)
JULY 15: Polish Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski presented an assistance package for Libya, including medical missions and training for public servants, during the meeting of the International Contact Group. (Warsaw Business Journal)
JULY 15: British Foreign Secretary William Hague announced that the military pressure on the regime would continue to intensify as the United Kingdom announced plans to commit an additional four Tornado warplanes to the NATO operation. The Tornados will help with reconnaissance and surveillance, and will also have the capability to launch strikes.  (Reuters, BBC, Reuters, Reuters)
JULY 15: The Libyan Contact Group held its fourth meeting on Friday, attended by over 30 countries and representatives from the National Transitional Council. Russia and China both turned down invitations to the meeting. Turkey and the African Union presented their plans to resolve the conflict. The Group is crafting a political package, including a ceasefire, for the UN Special Envoy to Libya, Abdul Elah al-Khatib, to present to Libyan leadership. According to Italy’s Foreign Minister, Franco Frattini, Khatib will be the only person allowed to negotiate. The Contact Group also collectively recognized the NTC as the official representative of the Libyan people. At the meeting, Italy promised to offer the NTC €100 million in credit immediately, and up to €400 million in total. Turkey also pledged $300 million, and asked countries to consider using frozen funds to open lines of credit. Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu supported the proposal to release $3 billion of frozen assets to the NTC under UN supervision. (BBC, Al Jazeera, Reuters, WSJ, Reuters, WP, Reuters)
JULY 15: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced at the Libyan Contact Group meeting that “until an interim authority is in place, the United States will recognize the NTC as the legitimate governing authority for Libya.” Official diplomatic recognition from the United States will allow it to disperse some of the $30 billion of frozen Libyan assets to fund the rebels. (AP, WP, Reuters)
JULY 14: Lieutenant General Charles Bouchard stated that “the Qaddafi regime has give direction to its force to destroy certain facilities as they withdraw back, such as fuel refineries and other aspects.” He could not confirm whether Qaddafi had issued orders to destroy Tripoli if the rebels capture the city, and stated that there was no guarantee that Qaddafi troops would follow the orders. (Reuters)
JULY 14: An unnamed British Defense Ministry source reported that, as Qaddafi’s forces increasingly use civilian structures and vehicles for defense, the airstrikes are running out of military targets. The source stated that Britain was not facing a shortage of military assets, but “We’ve had credible intelligence that Gaddafi is using civilian warehouses. He’s definitely changing his tactics.” (Reuters)
JULY 14: A Turkish Foreign Ministry official announced that his country plans to discuss a Turkish peace proposal and will seek a ‘road map’ to end the Libya conflict at the latest meeting of the Libyan Contact Group. While details of their new proposal are secret, it is reportedly based off of the peace plan Turkey submitted in April. (AP)
JULY 14: The Qaddafi regime has barred Italy’s oil companies from participation in Libya’s oil sector because of Italy’s participation in NATO’s air campaign. It is the first country to suffer a permanent ban, partly because of the friendship agreements Italy and Libya signed in the past that forbid acts of aggression. (AP)
JULY 13: Italian Foreign Ministry spokesman Maurizio Massari anticipates a “convergence” of interests between the African Union and the West about negotiating a post-Qaddafi Libya because of the increasing calls from African leaders for Qaddafi to step down. (AP)
JULY 13: European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso promised National Transitional Council representative Mahmoud Jebril that the European Union is willing to aid the rebels with organizing elections and establishing state institutions once Qaddafi is out of power. On Thursday, Jebril will meet with European Council President Herman Van Rompuy. (Reuters)
JULY 13: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton predicted increased efforts from Western countries to put pressure on Qaddafi and stated that his days are “numbered.” She acknowledged that, although Qaddafi associates were contacting countries, their messages were conflicting. (AP)
JULY 13: President Obama reiterated his support for Russia’s bid to mediate a political solution in Libya to Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov. (AP)
JULY 13: British Defense Minister Liam Fox criticized NATO alliance members who he judged were not contributing enough and labeled some other states’ efforts as “pathetic.” He warned some members that “they should regard Libya as a wake up call,” and echoed former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates’s warnings against ‘free riding.’ (Reuters, Reuters Africa)
JULY 13: European countries Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands officially recognized the National Transitional Council as the Libyan peoples’ legitimate representative. (AP, Reuters, AFP)
JULY 13: Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen told the visiting rebel delegation, led by Mahmoud Jibril, that the airstrikes will continue as long as Qaddafi’s forces pose an active threat to civilians. He stated that Qaddafi had lost legitimacy and that both sides must seek a diplomatic solution. (WSJ, AP)
JULY 12: NATO raised the possibility of halting the bombing campaign during Ramadan if Qaddafi implements and honors a ceasefire. NATO may be concerned about the public image of carrying out attacks in a Muslim nation during Ramadan, but other analysts also warn about the potential side effects of stopping the airstrikes. (AP)
JULY 12: U.S. intelligence reports that Qaddafi is facing constraints from fuel shortages in Tripoli, which rebels in the Nafusa Mountains could exacerbate if they assault a crude oil pipeline feeding into Zawiya. Qaddafi is also running out of cash to pay his troops and government, a situation made worse by Turkey’s recent assets seizure. He is apparently relying on letters of credit to pay his debtors. According to reports, government troops are also facing widespread morale issues. U.S. officials believe that these shortages should be among the first factors to shift momentum to the rebels and may explain the loyalists’ increasing interest in a diplomatic solution. (AP, Washington Post)
JULY 12: France’s parliament overwhelmingly voted in favor of extending France’s participation in NATO’s air campaign over Libya. The government is constitutionally bound to seek parliamentary approval to continue operations as the four month mark approaches. Prime Minister François Fillon was hopeful about the possibility of a diplomatic solution, stating that an agreement “is beginning to take shape.” France has spent $228 million on its operations to date. (NY Times, Reuters)
JULY 12: Turkey invited China and Russia to participate in the upcoming meeting of the Libya Contact Group. Neither China nor Russia was involved in the previous meetings. The Group will convene in Istanbul on Friday. (AFP)
JULY 12: Franco Frattini, Italy’s Foreign Minister, echoed Algeria’s warnings that Libya’s disorder has allowed al-Qaeda to smuggle arms out of the country. This is the first time that a senior Western official publicly announced that the smuggling has taken place. Two days earlier, the Egyptian army intercepted a vehicle at the border leaving Libya carrying sixteen guns for target shooting, three Grad missiles, five anti-tank rounds, ten machine guns, three automatic rifles, and ammunition. (Reuters, Ennahar
JULY 12: French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe announced that France had received Libyan emissaries who promised that Qaddafi is prepared to leave power. Juppe clarified that there were not any negotiations yet but expressed hope that the contact could lead to a political solution. (Reuters, AP)
JULY 11: NATO airstrikes hit targets in Misrata, Tripoli, Waddan, and Zuwara. Jets bombed two armed vehicles around Misrata, and three radars, three surface-to-air missile launchers, and one anti-aircraft gun near Tripoli. At Waddan, aircraft targeted a military storage facility. The targets at Zuwara were three military facilities, seven military vehicles, and one armed vehicle. (NATO)
JULY 11: President Obama promised Russian President Dmitry Medvedev that the United State will back Russian-led negotiations in Libya so long as they lead to Qaddafi’s removal from power and a democratic transition. (AP)
JULY 11: U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta warned that the capabilities of NATO allies could be exhausted within the next 90 days. There was no mention specific countries, but he expressed concern that “the United States…is going to be looked at to help fill the gap.” Panetta did not give any clue as to what the U.S. response would be, but echoed previous Secretary of Defense Robert Gates’s concerns about NATO’s lopsided defense capabilities. Panetta stated that “I’m a believer in partnerships but when you talk about partnerships, dammit you gotta be partners.” (Reuters)
JULY 11: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini called for a political solution to the conflict in Libya, but maintained that Qaddafi “leaving the stage” is necessary. The UN peace envoy for Libya also expressed the need for the rebels and the regime to enter direct talks on a settlement. (Reuters)
JULY 11: Canada dispatched HMCS Vancouver to replace HMCS Charlottetown to continue Canada’s support of the arms embargo on Libya. (People’s Daily)
JULY 11: The United States is replacing the EA-6 Prowler in Libya with EA-18 Growler jets to jam Qaddafi’s ground radar. The Growlers, twice as fast as the Vietnam-era Prowler and requiring half as many crew members, continue to give NATO aircraft free reign to conduct airstrikes. (LA Times)
JULY 10: NATO airstrikes hit an armed vehicle and a tank in Brega, as well as one armored fighting vehicle, four armed vehicles, one missile site, four artillery pieces, and one multiple rocket launcher in Misrata. In Tripoli, aircraft bombed a military storage facility and five surface-to-air missile launchers. Strikes at Waddan targeted a military storage facility and a rocket launcher. Another rocket launcher and a tank were destroyed between Gharyan and Yafran. An artillery piece was bombed at both Ras Lanuf and Zintan. (NATO)
JULY 10: Paul Grigson, Australia’s deputy foreign affairs and trade secretary, met with leaders from the National Transitional Council in Canberra’s first Libyan visit since the beginning of the conflict. Australia pledged to maintain its humanitarian aid to Libya and recognized the NTC as the legitimate representatives of the Libyan people. Australia is the third largest humanitarian donor after the US and EU. (AFP)
JULY 10: NATO forces rescued an overcrowded vessel crammed with refugees that had suffered from engine trouble and began to sink. The ship was in international waters between Libya and Tunisia. (Reuters)
JULY 10: French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet announced that the rebels should cease their refusal to enter talks and start negotiations with the government. This is the first time a member of NATO has publicly challenged the rebels’ stance. Longuet stated that “The position of the NTC is very far from other positions. Now, there will be a need to sit around a table.” Alain Juppe, France’s Foreign Minister, pledged to work with the African Union to work towards a political solution and called for an UN-controlled ceasefire. Their changing position on the conflict comes days before France’s parliament vote on extended operations. However, the U.S. State Department released a statement that makes no mention of compromise. (Reuters, AFP, Reuters)
JULY 10: Talks between the UN’s special envoy for Libya, Abdul Elah al-Khatib, and Libya’s Prime Minister and Foreign Minister focused on a managed transition in the country. Al-Khatib is scheduled to brief the UN Security Council on Monday. (Reuters)
JULY 9: The International Organization for Migration released its plans to airlift about 2,000 stranded migrants out of the town of Sebha in southern Libya. The migrants are primarily from Chad and are suffering from supply shortages. The IOM has evacuated close to 150,000 migrants from Libya since the beginning of the conflict. (AP)
JULY 9: NATO announced that airstrikes destroyed a missile firing position south of Misrata that Qaddafi forces had concealed among farm buildings. Qaddafi troops there were using the missile launcher to fire indiscriminately on civilians in Misrata. Aircraft also hit an artillery piece around Misrata. At Brega, jests destroyed a tank, and strikes around Tripoli hit two military storage facilities, two missile launchers, one radar, and four command and control buildings. Jets bombed a military storage facility at Waddan and four armed vehicles around Yafran. NATO also destroyed a tank at Zlitan and a command and control facility near Zintan. (Reuters, AP, NATO, BBC)
JULY 8: The British Foreign Secretary William Hague again reiterated his government’s belief that Qaddafi’s departure is inevitable. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 8: The UN is in talks with representatives from the National Transitional Council about easing some of the sanctions on Libya to meet the shortages of medical and other essential supplies. Tripoli’s vaccine orders have stalled because banks are unwilling to accept a credit note from the Bank of Libya, which might lead to trouble from the sanctions or from public reaction. The last non-emergency shipment of medicine to Libya was in January. The deal may allow for frozen assets to be transferred to the World Health Organization specifically for medical supplies that the WHO would distribute to both regime and rebel forces. (WSJ, AFP)
JULY 8: The International Organization for Migration organized airlifts of 370 African migrants from southern Libya to N’Djamena, the capital of Chad. This leaves approximately 2,000 more migrants waiting in southern Libya with limited food, water, and medical attention. Handicap International and UNICEF warned about the growing danger mines and explosive remnants pose to children. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 8: Wing Commander Mike Bracken, NATO’s mission spokesman, continued to deny that the alliance is involved in supporting the rebel advance. He clarified that NATO is “not involved in the ground battles.” (Al Jazeera)
JULY 8: Poland announced that it had established diplomatic ties with the National Transitional Council and had sent its ambassador to Benghazi. (AFP)
JULY 7: The House voted on amendments to a 2012 military appropriations bill, passing one in a 225-201 vote that prohibits providing “military equipment, training or advice or other support for military activities” to the Libyan rebels. The House rejected an amendment that would have barred funding for the limited U.S. role in the conflict, and another that would have forbid deployment of U.S. forces in the NATO mission. One of the amendments passed overwhelmingly in a 316-111 vote that bans any Pentagon spending in violation of the War Powers Resolution. (AP, NY Times, Reuters, AFP, Los Angeles Times, AP, BBC)
JULY 7: NATO denied claims that it is using airstrikes to support the rebel advance, instead insisting that operations adhered to the mandate to protect civilians. Spokeswoman Oana Lungescu also stated that NATO is skeptical of accusations that the rebels are using foreign mercenaries. (AP)
JULY 7: The Russian Foreign Minister announced that they see “no fast solution” to the conflict in Libya. He decried the civilian deaths caused by both sides. (CNN)
JULY 7: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi announced that he had personally opposed NATO’s decision to intervene in Libya. However, because Italy’s parliament supported the move, Berlusconi had been forced to allow the operation. (Reuters)
JULY 6: The Pentagon submitted a report to Congress requesting to move previously allocated funding to pay for munitions expended in the Libya campaign. This included $310 million for Tomahawk missiles, $38 million for Joint Direct Attack Munitions, $15 million for general-purpose bombs, $5 million for Hellfire missiles, and a few hundred thousand dollars for cartridges, fuses, and flares. This request contradicts earlier claims that replacements would not be needed. (Defense News)
JULY 6: NATO conducted airstrikes around Brega, Gharyan, Misrata, Waddan, Yafran, Zlitan, and Zintan. Aircraft bombed military refueling equipment, eight armed vehicles, two armored fighting vehicles and one truck at Brega. Around Gharyan, strikes hit an anti-aircraft gun. Aircraft targeted three armed vehicles at Misrata and one military storage facility at Waddan. At Yefran, jets bombed one artillery piece and one armed vehicle. Airstrikes hit eight armed vehicles at Zlitan and one armed vehicle at Zintan. (NATO)
JULY 6: NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen reported that the coalition had destroyed over 2,700 military targets since the beginning of the air campaign. He mentioned that Qaddafi’s economic strength is declining and that his military power is waning, factors that will contribute to his inevitable fall from power.   Qaddafi’s attempts to retake lost territory have “fallen apart.” (AP, Bloomberg)
JULY 6: Turkey pledged more assistance as the holy month of Ramadan approaches. They will set up tents for the breaking of fast and provide aid for the National Transitional Council. The government also encouraged Turkish governments who abandoned projects in Libya to return and restart work. Turkey is set to host a meeting of the Libyan Contact Group on July 15. (Reuters)
JULY 6: Over 1,000 South Africans gathered outside of the U.S. embassy to protest NATO’s involvement in Libya and call for an end to the airstrikes. The demonstration concluded with the transfer of a document to U.S. officials detailing how the air campaign is undermining the African Union’s attempt to solve the conflict through diplomacy. (AFP)
JULY 5: France’s Defense Minister, Gerard Longuet, publicly questioned the ability of the rebel’s to defeat Qaddafi and take Tripoli. He remarked that the opposition is expanding its capacity but is “currently not in a stabilized, centralized system.” However, they are no longer in need of any more weapons drops. In a different set of comments, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen expressed his hope that the United Nations will take the lead in Libya’s transition to democracy once the rebels defeat Qaddafi. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 5: NATO airstrikes hit targets in Brega, Gharyan, Misrata, Sirte, and Waddan. Planes bombed a command and control center at Brega, as well as two armed vehicles and four tanks at Gharyan. Around Misrata, aircraft targeted one tank, one command and control center, and one artillery piece. NATO also hit three armored fighting vehicles at Sirte and one military storage facility at Waddan.
JULY 5: The United Nations World Food Program announced its plan to deliver aid to Benghazi and Misrata. The WFP introduced a ship that will ferry supplies and aid workers to the cities, making one or two trips per week. (UN News Centre)
JULY 5: Journalists hoping to see Qaddafi’s military on a trip to Brega instead had regime officials bring them to different sites far away from the front lines and subject them to a poorly-constructed pro-government propaganda campaign. (BBC)
JULY 5: The International Committee of the Red Cross is monitoring the Qaddafi regime and waiting for signs that they can no longer make payments or guarantee food supplies. So far, the organization has not noticed any food crises in government-controlled areas due to food subsidies and regular wage payments, but elsewhere in the country populations face shortages of essential goods and supplies. The Red Cross fears that the humanitarian crisis will worsen if fighting breaks out in or around Tripoli. (Reuters)
JULY 5: Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nevada) pulled the Kerry-McCain resolution endorsing the NATO campaign in Libya from the Senate floor to concentrate on the debt crisis. Senator McCain supported the delay and indicated that it may come to the floor next week, while Senator Kerry seemed unfazed, offering the assurance that “It’s not a big deal. I think it will come back pretty quickly.” (WP, Reuters, NY Times)
JULY 5: President Obama asked Kenya to freeze both Qaddafi’s foreign assets and the assets of the Libyan central bank. He also requested that Kenya aid the National Transitional Council in establishing a representative office in Nairobi and revoke the diplomatic status of any official that remained loyal to Qaddafi. (Bloomberg)
JULY 4: Turkey froze the Libyan Foreign Bank’s 62% stake in Turkey Arap Turk Bankasi A.S. The bank had 1.4 billion Turkish lira in assets. (AP, WSJ)
JULY 4: While attending the NATO-Russia council, Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen insisted that operations in Libya were following the UN Security Council resolution that authorized it. Russia had previously expressed concerns that the mission in Libya had changed from protecting civilians to facilitating regime change. Russia called for a ceasefire and talks “with support, but not interference, from outside the country.” (BBC, AP)
JULY 3: Turkey, a NATO member that initially opposed intervention in Libya, announced that it officially recognized the National Transitional Council and promised to deliver at least $200 million in aid to the rebels. (Al Jazeera, BBC, AP)
JULY 2: Speaking with Spanish Foreign Minister Trinidad Jimenez, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that Qaddafi should step down from power and deliver democracy instead of making threats against Europe. Jimenez expressed Spain’s commitment to maintain the NATO mission regardless of Qaddafi’s threats. The UK reported it was taking Qaddafi’s threats seriously, but did not mention any specific measures put in place. (BBC, AFP, WSJ, AP)
JULY 2: NATO announced that it planned to increase the number of airstrikes in the western part of Libya. They have reportedly been hitting government forces in cities and near “major lines of communications.” (AP)
JULY 1: British Apache helicopters carried out strikes against the al Mayah military camp, near Zawiyah. NATO reported that the camp was used to terrorize locals, and that the helicopters destroyed a command and control vehicle, a bunk, and three tanks. (BBC)
JULY 1: A British-based newspaper reported that regime officials had met with French and British representatives on the Tunisian island of Djerba. Unnamed sources revealed that Qaddafi is willing to step down if he can avoid prosecution and remain in his hometown of Sirte with security guarantees. The report was not confirmed by the Libyan, UK, or French governments. (Reuters)
JUNE 30: The World Bank’s representative for Libya, Marouane Abassi, warned that the longer the conflict drags on, the more likely it is for extremists to replace the technocrats currently leading the revolution. Abassi echoed the concerns of Jean Ping, chairman of the African Union, that Libya risks a similar situation as that in Somalia. (Reuters)
JUNE 30: British Apache helicopters attacked a regime checkpoint and two military vehicles around al Khoms, located between Misrata and Tripoli. Around Zlitan, NATO strikes hit one multiple rocket launcher, one mortar, one armed vehicle, and one command and control facility. (Reuters, Reuters)
JUNE 30: Spain’s Interior Minister voiced concerns that Libyan army weapons may find their way to al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb through weapons traffickers at the southern border. AQIM is a growing threat, and countries worry that it might gain enough strength to spread out from the Sahel region of Africa. (AP)
JUNE 30: Russia condemned France’s decision to supply weapons to Libyan opposition groups, labeling it “a very crude violation of UN Security Council resolution 1970,” and demanded an explanation. (BBC)
JUNE 30: Britain offered 5,000 sets of body armor, 6,650 uniforms, 5,000 high-visibility vests, and communications equipment for civilian police officers in Libya’s eastern cities. With new supplies, the police would be better able to protect NTC representatives as well as international and NGO communities. (AP)
JUNE 30: An unnamed Austrian official revealed that the government was prepared to unfreeze funds from Libyan accounts and transfer money to the rebels, but had to ensure it would not violate the rights of the account holders. (AP)
JUNE 30: Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei warned that countries operating under UN Security Council resolution 1973 should “avoid taking any action that goes beyond the mandate of the resolution.” He did not mention any countries by name, suggesting that China is avoiding taking a firm public stance on the issue of arms shipments. (Reuters, AP)
JUNE 30: Equatorial Guinea President Teodoro Obiang Nguema, the current chairman of the African Union, decried foreign military intervention in Africa and announced it should only happen with the consensus of all African nations. (AP)
JUNE 29: Col. Thierry Burkhard, a spokesperson for the French military, confirmed reports that France’s government conducted several airdrops of weapons and ammunition to arm rebels in the Nafusa Mountains. He insisted that France was following the UN Security Council resolution that mandated protecting civilians from harm. Britain’s Foreign Office, while not involved in the airdrops, agreed that even with the arms embargo “UNSCR 1973 allows all necessary measures to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack.” However, the British Minister for International Security, Gerald Howarth, added “It’s not something we shall be doing.” NATO stated that it was not involved in France’s arms shipments. Some see the weapons drops as another step towards involvement in a land war. (NY Times, Telegraph, WSJ, Al Jazeera, Reuters, Reuters)
JUNE 29: Henry Bellingham, the UK Minister for Africa, reported that there is a change in the African Union’s perception of Qaddafi. African foreign ministers who did not support calls for Qaddafi’s removal at first are now privately agreeing he should step down. African leaders remain publicly divided on the issue. (AP, BBC, AP)
JUNE 29: President Obama reiterated U.S. participation in operations in Libya are limited and do not violate the War Powers Resolution, nor do they require Congressional approval. He dismissed most of the “fuss” in Congress as being politically motivated. (AP)
JUNE 29: A UK government minister reported that African officials gathered at a regional summit in Equatorial Guinea agreed that Qaddafi must step down for a democratic transition to take place successfully. They will discuss an exit strategy for the country tomorrow. (Bloomberg)
JUNE 29: Unidentified sources report that France parachuted weapons, including rocket launchers, assault rifles, machine guns, and anti-tank missiles, into the Nafusa Mountains to arm the rebels. A senior source stated that France took action without consulting NATO “because there was no other way to proceed.” However, some are worried that the weapons will find their way into the hands of extremists. (Reuters Africa, AFP, Washington Post)
JUNE 29: British Foreign Secretary William Hague promised that the rising costs in Libya will not affect UK involvement in Afghanistan. Members of the House of Commons had questioned whether they might have to divert personnel or equipment from Afghanistan to support the Libya operation. (British Forces News)
JUNE 29: British Foreign Secretary William Hague confirmed that the National Transitional Council had received the first $100 million, in the form of a loan from Qatar, of more than $1.3 billion pledged by the International Contact Group on Libya. The NTC plans to use the money to pay the salaries of those involved in essential services. (AP, AFP)
JUNE 28: A UK-led team to help the NTC plan a post-Qaddafi Libya recommended that they leave Qaddafi’s security forces largely intact during and after the transition. They seek to avoid making a similar mistake to the one made in Iraq in 2003. The entire 50 page report of recommendations will be sent to the United Nations, where International Development Secretary Andre Mitchell stated that they were considering sending in unarmed peacekeeping monitors after the conflict’s conclusion. The suggested force would include troops from Turkey, Jordan and some African Union nations. (Reuters, WSJ)
JUNE 28: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted 14-5 in favor of a resolution, proposed by Senators John Kerry (D-Mass) and John McCain (R-Ariz), which approves U.S. military participation in Libya. The resolution permits continued U.S. involvement for another year but restricts the military from expanding its role. The legal adviser to the State Department, Harold Koh, testified before the committee, while Pentagon and Justice Department lawyers declined the invitation. The Committee voted down an amendment proposed by Senator Richard Lugar that essentially prohibited the U.S. from participating in strikes, also in a 14-5 vote. However, they accepted Senator Lugar’s amendment that for forbids the use of ground forces. The full Senate will consider the resolution in the week of July 11. (NY Times, Reuters, AP, WSJ, LA Times)
JUNE 28: NATO airstrikes hit targets in Brega, Zlitan, Tripoli, and Gharyan. In Brega, aircraft struck two command and control nodes, one command and control facility, one armored vehicle, one artillery piece, twelve armed vehicles, five armed pick-up trucks, three trucks, and three military hangars. NATO destroyed one multiple rocket launcher, one mortar, one armed vehicle, and one command and control facility around Zlitan, as well as one anti-aircraft missile launcher and two radars near Tripoli. At Ghatyan, the only target was a military compound. (NATO)
JUNE 28: The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, warned Qaddafi’s aides that they risk prosecution if they do not turn Qaddafi over to face charges of crimes against humanity. Because NATO is unwilling to put troops on the ground, the only other way to arrest Qaddafi is through rebel forces. However, Ocampo remains optimistic, estimating “I don’t think we will have to wait long…In two or three months it is game over.” (AP, Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 28: China, in its efforts to maintain ties with both sides of the Libyan conflict, stopped short of officially backing the ICC arrest warrants issued on Monday. Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei announced that the government hoped the ICC will “make sure its work will be generally conducive to peace and stability in the region.” (AP, Reuters)
JUNE 28: The State Department’s legal advisor, Harold H. Koh, testified in front of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee defending the administration’s position that, regardless of the War Powers Resolution, the Libya mission does not require Congressional authorization. An analysis prepared by Republican Senate lawyers labels the argument “ill founded.” (NY Times, AP)
JUNE 27: In response to a request from NATO for assistance, Germany has agreed to provide bomb components and missiles for use in the air campaign against Qaddafi. The contribution comes even as German government remains steadfast in its determination not to be involved in the conflict. (Spiegel)
JUNE 27: NATO missiles hit Qaddafi’s personal bus in his Tripoli compound and slightly injured two people, according to Libyan officials. (LA Times)
JUNE 27: A UN Security Council sanctions committee has banned Qaddafi’s wife Safia and Libyan Finance Minister Abdulhafid Zlitni from leaving the country and ordered the seizure of their foreign assets. Russia had previously blocked their inclusion to the list of those subject to travel bans and asset freezes. The UN also imposed sanctions on the Zueitina Oil Company. (Reuters)
JUNE 27: UN Under Secretary-General for Political Affairs Lynn Pascoe told the UN Security Council that the rebels have gained the upper hand against Qaddafi, “supported at times by NATO air power.” (Reuters)
JUNE 27: The International Criminal Court authorized warrants for Muammar Qaddafi, his son Saif, described as Qaddafi’s “de facto prime minister,” and the intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanoussi, described as Qaddafi’s “executioner.” The court has charged the three with crimes against humanity committed during the initial uprising. The warrants are limited to events between February 18 and 28. Analysts disagree as to whether this will complicate or expedite the negotiation process. The only other time the ICC issued a warrant for a sitting head of state was Sudanese leader Oman Hassan al Bashir in 2005. Bashir has yet to be arrested. (Reuters, NY Times, LA Times, Washington Post, Al Jazeera)
JUNE 27: There were two loud blasts near Qaddafi’s compound in Tripoli Monday morning. There is not yet any available information on the nature of the targets or if there were casualties. (AP)
JUNE 27: French President Nicolas Sarkozy again called on Qaddafi to step down, recommending that “After 41 years of dictatorship, it is perhaps time to stop, for him to leave power.” (AP)
JUNE 26: NATO airstrikes bombed three command and control nodes and one tank in Brega, three technical vehicles around Ras Lanuf, and two artillery pieces at Zintan. Aircraft also targeted an antenna at Zuwarah, a logistic node at Yafran, and two artillery pieces around Tripoli. (NATO)
JUNE 25: Airstrikes on Saturday hit targets in Brega, Zintan, and Tripoli. Planes bombed two tanks, a logistics truck, six technical vehicles, three military shelters, four military compounds, and one antenna around Brega. Strikes hit an armed vehicle and a technical vehicle in Zintan. At Tripoli, NATO targeted one vehicle storage depot, four anti-aircraft guns, two missile loader vehicles, two missile transport vehicles, one radar van, and a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. (NATO)
JUNE 25: NATO denied claims by Libyan state television that airstrikes in Brega killed 15 civilians. A NATO spokesperson explained the targets were used to stockpile military supplies and vehicles, and that “any people in that area at that time were legitimate military targets.” He assured the press that government troops had been using the area as a base and that NATO had taken every precaution to avoid harming civilians. Libyan officials were unable to provide any evidence of civilian casualties. (Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 24: NATO conducted airstrikes around Brega, Gharyan, Zlitan, and Okba. At Brega, planes bombed seven command and control nodes, one military storage facility, fourteen truck-mounted guns, one tank, two armored personnel carriers, three logistic trucks, and seven military shelters. Aircraft targeted one early warning radar and one truck-mounted gun in Gharyan. The targets at Zlitan were two artillery pieces, one mortar, and one truck mounted gun. At Okba, strikes hit three missile loader vehicles. (NATO)
JUNE 24: The Turkish foreign ministry announced that it had no knowledge of any company selling supplies to the Qaddafi regime after the UN Security Council imposed sanctions on Libya. The company in question, UNIFO, stated that they had “not made any sails contract with [the] Government of Libya,” and that their products “cannot be classified as military products.” (Al Jazeera)
JUNE 24: The House voted down two important measures on Friday, one which would have authorized the President’s military involvement in Libya, and another that would have cut funding for U.S. operations. Seventy Democrats joined overwhelming Republican opposition in voting against the resolution to authorize the mission, which failed 123-295. The rejection serves as another strong rebuke to President Obama’s handling of the crisis. The bill that would have restricted funding for U.S. involvement was also defeated in a 180-238 vote. (CNN, Los Angeles Times)
JUNE 24: French President Nicolas Sarkozy dismissed Defense Secretary Robert Gates’s criticisms of NATO as the remarks of a “bitter” man who is on the way out. Sarkozy chastised Gates for asserting that the U.S. was doing most of the job in Libya, calling the claims “particularly inappropriate from Gates, and totally wrong.” He declined to lay out a concrete timeline for the NATO mission in Libya, confirming that the countries involved would remain committed until Qaddafi left. (Bloomberg, AP)
JUNE 24: An investigation of Libya’s oil infrastructure has led Britain’s government to believe that the damage is not extensive and that pumping could restart within three or four weeks. However, the rebel leadership has publicly expressed doubts that production could resume that rapidly. (Reuters)
JUNE 24: According to a British diplomat, a team of officials from the UK, U.S., Italy, Turkey, and other nations has spent a month with the National Transitional Council planning for different scenarios that might result from Qaddafi’s removal and the necessary reconstruction. The NTC is expected to publish the final plans next week. (AP)
JUNE 24: Officials say that new U.S. intelligence suggests Qaddafi may be considering leaving Tripoli for a more secure location. Reports assert that Qaddafi “doesn’t feel safe anymore” due to the intensified NATO air campaign and rebel advances. However, his move does not seem imminent and the intelligence agencies have no evidence of him planning to leave the country. (WSJ, AFP)
JUNE 23: New evidence has surfaced indicating that a Turkish company supplied Qaddafi’s forces after the start of recent hostilities. Examination of supplies captured from three different Qaddafi camps in the Nafusa Mountains revealed rations that, according to their labels, were shipped from Turkey in March. This indicates that the rations, produced by the Turkish company UNIFO, arrived in Libya after fighting began. The Turkish government has yet to comment on the discovery. (Al Jazeera)
JUNE 23: The International Criminal Court announced that it will decide on Monday whether to issue arrest warrants for Muammar Qaddafi, his son Saif, and the intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanussi. Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo alleges the three are guilty of widespread and systematic violence directed against civilians. Libyan officials have stated that they will ignore the warrants if ICC issues them. (BBC, AP)
JUNE 23: British Defense Secretary Liam Fox reported that the air campaign in Libya will have cost the United Kingdom at least 260 million pounds if the operation continues for another three months. The projected expenditure for the mission was 120 million pounds, with the added cost coming from replacing missiles and other weapons. Fox also explained that measures to minimize civilian casualties contribute to steeper costs. (AP)
JUNE 23: The International Committee of the Red Cross announced the beginning of an operation to transfer people back to their homes who are trapped on the wrong side of the country. A ship will transport several hundred people from Tripoli to Benghazi, and another hundred back the other way. (Reuters)
JUNE 23: After a proposal from Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini to implement a temporary halt to hostilities, NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen announced that “We shall continue and see it through to the end.” Rasmussen is concerned that any relief for Qaddafi’s men would allow them to regroup and launch new offensives. France and the United Kingdom both resisted Italy’s call to pause the air campaign, insisting that there was no evidence that the humanitarian aid is not reaching civilians and instead calling for intensified bombing. (Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 22: NATO planes hit targets in Tirpoli, Jadu, Zlitan, Zintan, and Misrata.  In Tripoli, bombs struck a radar installation and a command and control node. An ammunition storage depot was destroyed in Jadu, and in Zlitan planes bombed thirteen armed vehicles, one armored personnel carrier, and one rocket launcher. Airstrikes hit a missile loader in Zintan, and a command and control node near Misrata. (NATO)
JUNE 22: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated on Wednesday that Qaddafi and his men have “their backs against the wall,” and that the opposition movement is making progress on the ground. Clinton also pushed back against House Republicans who have increasingly opposed U.S. involvement in Libya, asking lawmakers “Whose side are you on?” (Reuters, AP)
JUNE 22: The House has agreed to vote on a resolution that would grant President Obama the authority to continue U.S. involvement and the other is a bill that would cut off U.S. funding for operations except search and rescue, aerial refueling, operational planning, intelligence and surveillance, and non-combat missions. The resolution in the House closely models the Senate resolution backed by Senators John Kerry (D-Mass) and John McCain (R-Ariz). Lawmakers will likely bring both measures to a vote on Friday. (AP, New York Times, Reuters, Los Angeles Times
JUNE 22: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee will consider resolution backed by Senators John Kerry (D-Mass) and John McCain (R-Ariz) that would grant President Obama limited authorization to continue U.S. operations in Libya next week. (AP)


JUNE 22: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini urged a suspension of hostilities to allow humanitarian aid to reach Libyans. Frattini also called for information and guidelines on any airstrike mistakes that involved civilians. However, the French Foreign Ministry announced that it was against any cessation of hostilities. (BBC, AP

JUNE 21: Amr Moussa, head of the Arab League, announced he has second thoughts about NATO's airstrikes in Libya and is increasingly certain that a military campaign will not produce the desired changes. Instead, Moussa is calling for a ceasefire and plans to pursue a political solution. However, the various political channels being used to convince Qaddafi to leave power have had no progress. (Guardian)


JUNE 21: NATO airstrikes hit three missile launchers and an anti-aircraft gun around Tripoli. Bombing near Nalut targeted five truck-mounted guns, an armored personnel carrier, and two anti-aircraft guns. At Ziltan, planes hit a truck-mounted gun and a military camp with six truck-mounted guns, two military trucks and twelve shelters. Other strikes in Zintan targeted a rocket launcher, two anti-aircraft guns, and three missile loader vehicles. (NATO)


JUNE 21: German federal prosecutors opened an investigation of Qaddafi to gather evidence of any violations of international law. They announced that they do not intend to bring charges against Qaddafi. The investigation is allowed under the principle of universal jurisdiction, which permits countries to pursue foreigners for crimes committed abroad. (AP)


JUNE 21: After taking responsibility for an errant missile that killed nine civilians on Sunday, NATO is investigating the possibility that the casualties were instead caused by a Soviet-made surface-to air- missile from a stockpile that was bombed the same night. Bombing government arms depots has activated the ordinance before. (New York Times)


JUNE 21: Prime Minister David Cameron expressed irritation over comments from the Royal Air Force's second in command that speculated the Libya conflict is having a negative effect on morale. Cameron clarified that military leaders know the government can maintain the Libya mission as long as necessary and that morale is “extremely high.” Instead of reopening discussion about the strategy, Cameron wants to accelerate its implementation to allow for the introduction of new equipment. (BBC, New York Times, AP, Guardian)


JUNE 21: Congress's threats to cut off funding for U.S. military involvement in Libya prompted NATO spokeswoman Oana Lungescu to highlight the importance of the unique assets provided by the United States. She announced that U.S. cooperation is critical for success. (Reuters)

JUNE 21: NATO officials confirmed reports by the Libyan media that an unmanned helicopter drone crashed in central Libya. It is not known why the drone, thought to be a MQ-8 Fire Scout made by the U.S. defense contractor Northrop Grumman, crashed. (CNN, BBC)
JUNE 21: The U.S. Treasury announced that it was blacklisting nine companies that were either owned or otherwise controlled by the Libyan government. These companies include the Arab Turkish Bank, North Africa International Bank, and the North Africa Commercial Bank. The Treasury dropped sanctions against former regime oil minister Shukri Mohammed Ghanem after his defection in May. (Reuters)
JUNE 21: The second in command of the UK’s Royal Air Force, Air Chief Marshal Sir Simon Bryant, is reported to be concerned about the negative effect of extended operations in Libya on morale. (BBC)
JUNE 21: Senators John Kerry and John McCain jointly introduced a resolution that would formally authorize U.S. military participation in ongoing operations in Libya for up to one year, countering efforts by House Republicans to bring about an end to the conflict. (CNN, Reuters)
JUNE 20: The New York Times reports that U.S. warplanes have conducted sixty airstrikes on Libyan air defense facilities while unmanned drones have fired missiles at military targets approximately thirty times. This release of this information, disclosed by unnamed military officials, potentially complicates recent efforts by the Obama administration to claim that the United States is not engaged in hostilities in Libya. (NYT)
JUNE 20: Republicans in the House of Representatives are considering introducing legislation that limits U.S. involvement in Libya. Representative Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) is planning to add an amendment to a Pentagon spending bill that would “prohibit the use of government funds” in Libya beyond October 1.   House Republicans are weighing their options on how to respond to Kucinich’s proposed amendment, and expect to debate the amendment before voting on it. Alternatively, Representative Joe Heck (R-Nev) is reportedly offering a bill Tuesday that would demand the cessation of U.S. involvement in Libya thirty days after the legislation was enacted. White House Press Secretary Jay Carney responded to this Congressional pressure by saying that such a vote would “send a bad message to both Qaddafi and to our friends around the world.” (Politico, The Hill)
JUNE 20: European Union Foreign Ministers agreed to examine the possibility of using frozen Qaddafi regime assets to provide funding for the National Transitional Council. (Reuters)
JUNE 20: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Antonio Guterres, appealed to Italy not to send refugees back to Libya. He called on wealthy countries to share the burden and offer more support to the developing nations disproportionately affected by the refugee crisis. (AP)
JUNE 20: NATO released an apology for the Sunday airstrike that killed nine civilians when it hit a house instead of the intended military target. (Politico, Los Angeles Times)
JUNE 19: Defense Secretary Gates warned Congress not to cut off funding for the Libya mission and predicted a positive outcome of the campaign. This week the House is likely to vote on measures that would restrict U.S. funding for or involvement in the Libya mission. (New York Times, Reuters)
JUNE 19: The United Kingdom’s Treasury Chief Secretary, Danny Alexander, announced that costs of the UK’s Libya involvement could run “into the hundreds of millions” of pounds despite previous government estimates otherwise. Alexander assured that funding was coming from reserves set aside for these situations and that the costs did not have an effect on other spending or public services. He also supported the United Kingdom taking a lead role in protecting Libyan civilians. (BBC)
JUNE 19: Defense Secretary Robert Gates sided with President Obama’s interpretation of how the War Powers Resolution applied to the Libya conflict. Gates referred to U.S. involvement as “a limited kinetic operation.” However, head lawyers for the departments of Defense and Justice contend that the resolution does, in fact, apply to Libya.   (AP, Reuters)
JUNE 19: Airstrikes on Sunday hit targets in Tripoli, Misrata, and Sebha. The bombings around Tripoli targeted a military vehicle storage facility and two surface-to-air missile guidance radars. NATO announced that one of its weapons did not hit the intended military site, but instead hit a house in a residential area. According to Libyan news sources, the stray strike killed nine civilians, including two children, and wounded eighteen others. This is the first time that NATO acknowledged that a mistake resulted in Libyan civilian deaths. In Misrata, planes destroyed two rocket launchers, a truck-mounted gun, three tanks, three anti-aircraft artillery pieces, and one military logistic truck. The target in Sebha was a command and control node. (NATO, BBC, AP, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Al Jazeera)
JUNE 18: NATO confirmed that it accidentally targeted and bombed a column of rebel vehicles last week, killing around thirty opposition fighters. The mistake marks at least the fourth friendly-fire incident between NATO air forces and opposition ground troops. (Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Al Jazeera)
JUNE 18: NATO airstrikes in Tripoli targeted a surface-to-air missile storage facility, one command and control facility, two military vehicle storage facilities, one rocket launcher, four artillery pieces, and two missile launchers. Strikes in Misrata bombed a missile launcher, two artillery pieces, a checkpoint, and one command and control node. The targets in Zintan were a rocket launcher and an anti-aircraft gun. (NATO)

JUNE 16: A Russian effort to mediate Qaddafi’s exit made no progress after Russia’s Special Envoy to Africa, Mikhail Margelov met with senior Libyan officials in Tripoli.  Margelov said he was told by Libyan officials that Qaddafi was not prepared to go. (LA Times)

JUNE 16: Congress and the White House will likely spar over funding for the military mission in Libya as Speaker John Boehner said the administration’s justification for the campaign in a recent report did not “pass the straight-face test.” House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) provided some political support to the president’s position that the Libyan intervention did not require congressional approval under the War Powers Resolution, others Democrats however, sided with Boehner and the Republicans. Senator Dick Durbin (D-Illinois) unveiled a resolution Thursday that would authorize the use of force, short of ground troops, in compliance with the War Powers Act. Durbin’s resolution would carry the force of law, unlike other non-binding resolutions being considered by the Senate. (The Hill, Politico)

JUNE 16: NATO is investigating a possible friendly-fire incident after 16 rebel fighters around Ajdabiya were wounded in an attack that was thought to be a NATO airstrike. (Reuters)

JUNE 16: U.S. State Department spokesperson Victoria Nuland dismissed an offer by Saif al-Islam to hold elections over Libya’s future, remarking, “I think it's a little late for that," and repeated the standpoint that "it's time for him (Qaddafi) to go". (Al-Jazeera)

JUNE 16: At least six explosions were heard in central Tripoli overnight as NATO bombing raids on the capital continued. (BBC)

JUNE 16: NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen publicly stated that he wanted to reverse the trend of falling defense spending among European members. He proposed more cooperation to reduce the organization’s reliance on the United States for high-tech weaponry. Rasmussen believes that budget cuts from the economic crisis could cause European allies to lag in the technology’s progress. (AP)

JUNE 16: NATO airstrikes bombed areas near Qaddafi’s Tripoli compound again early Thursday morning. There have been no statements on what the targets were or any information on casualties. (AP, Al Jazeera, BBC, Reuters)

JUNE 15: The Pentagon released figures showing that, in its first two months, operations in Libya have cost $716 million. At the current pace, by September costs will reach $1.1 billion. (New York Times, AP, Washington Post, WSJ,

JUNE 15: In a 32-page report, tendered in response to complaints from lawmakers, the White House announced that President Obama has the legal authority to continue the U.S. military engagement in Libya even without authorization from Congress. In what House Speaker John Boehner’s spokesman described as “creative arguments,” report contends that President Obama has not broken the law because he reduced U.S. participation to a support role that does not require congressional consent. Because of their limited nature, the War Powers Resolution does not envision the hostilities of the Libyan mission, and therefore does not apply. Lawmakers argue that this theory would allow the President to engage in remote-controlled combat unfettered by the time limits imposed by the War Powers Resolution. It is not clear whether the Justice Department has endorsed the President’s interpretation. The report also announced that the White House is working with the National Transitional Council on political transition plans, and that they had not uncovered any ties between the NTC and terrorist organizations. The report warned lawmakers about sending mixed messages which might signal a weakening U.S. commitment and called the House’s non-binding resolution unhelpful and unnecessary. (Reuters, New York Times, AP, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, WSJ, AP, Los Angeles Times

JUNE 15: Airstrikes in and around Tripoli hit one vehicle storage area and two command and control nodes. NATO also hit targets in Zwarah, Zintan, Waddan, and Misrata. Aircraft bombed an anti-aircraft gun near Zwarah and two anti-aircraft guns, a tank, a technical vehicle, and a lightweight weapon around Zintan. An ammunition storage facility was struck at Waddan, as well as two rocket launchers and an anti-aircraft gun in Misrata. (NATO)

JUNE 15: A bipartisan group of Congressmen led by Rep. Dennis Kucinich and Rep. Walter Jones filed a lawsuit against President Obama charging that he broke the law when he authorized military action in Libya. (Politico, AP)

JUNE 15: Lieutenant General Charles Bouchard, NATO commander in charge of Libya operations, assured reporters that the mission in Libya can succeed without using ground troops. He also expressed a positive view of military developments in western Libya. (Al Jazeera)

JUNE 14: House Speaker John Boehner issued a warning to the Obama administration about the approaching deadline imposed by the War Powers Act. This coming Sunday is the 90th day since U.S. forces began involvement in NATO-led operations, and President Obama has yet to seek Congressional approval or deliver his report on the scope of the mission. The War Powers Act limits the use of military forces to 60 days, with the option of a further 30 day extension if the president demonstrates the unavoidable necessity of continued involvement. Boehner requested an answer from President Obama by Friday. The White House reported that is in “the final stages” of preparing its report on the Libya mission. (Los Angeles Times, WSJ, Los Angeles Times, Politico, Washington Post)

JUNE 14: After a quiet day in Tripoli, NATO aircraft bombed two targets before midnight. Libyan state TV reported that bombs had destroyed military and civilian targets in two different neighborhoods, and that there were casualties. NATO has not commented on the bombings.  NATO also dropped leaflets outside of Zlitan, east of Tripoli, warning government troops to stop fighting and leave their posts. Some planes, unaware of recent rebel advances, may have accidentally dropped leaflets over rebel positions, stalling their advance on Zlitan. (AP, BBC, Reuters, Al Jazeera, Reuters, Guardian)

JUNE 14: European countries are beginning to feel the costs of the Libya campaign. Analysts in Britain estimate that if NATO’s involvement Libya last until September, operational costs for the country could reach $1.4 billion. France is currently spending $1.4 million a day above the military budget for this year, bringing excess costs so far to $126 million. (AP)

JUNE 14: Canada’s parliament extended the country’s military commitment in Libya to the end of September in a 294 to 1 vote. Defense Minister Peter MacKay reaffirmed the importance of continued airstrikes to maintain pressure on Qaddafi. (AP)

JUNE 14: NATO airstrikes hit targets in Tripoli, Waddan, Misrata, Yafran, and Brega. Aircraft bombed an air defense support facility and two surface-to-air missile launchers in Tripoli. NATO destroyed an ammunition storage facility in Waddan. In Misrata, Planes targeted three armored fighting vehicles and one truck mounted gun. Another truck mounted gun was bombed around Yafran, and two armored fighting vehicles near Brega. (NATO)

JUNE 14: Canada is the 14th nation to grant official recognition to the National Transitional Council. Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird announced that the recognition is part of a new “enhanced engagement strategy” that parliament decided on while debating an extension of Canada’s involvement in NATO’s military commitment. (AFP)

JUNE 14: South African President Jacob Zuma spoke out against NATO actions in Libya, accusing NATO of turning the UN resolution to protect Libyan civilians into a campaign seeking regime change, political killings, and foreign military occupation. This speech came after Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called on African nations to support coalition operations. (Reuters)

JUNE 14: A major who deserted from the Libyan army told the BBC that, while shipments of Viagra were widely known, he had not seen any of them. He specified that Qaddafi had not ordered the regular army to rape, but instead issued the command to mercenaries. UNHCR announced that it had not yet found evidence that government forces have used rape as a weapon of war, but it has uncovered individual instances of rape by both sides. (BBC)

JUNE 14: NATO officials could not confirm claims that Qaddafi’s forces may be hiding rocket launchers and ammunition at the World Heritage site of Leptis Magna. They did not state whether they would order airstrikes against the site if intelligence verified the presence of weapons. (CNN)

JUNE 14: The head of the Royal Navy, Admiral Mark Stanhope, announced that, if the military operation in Libya continues until the end of the year, the British fleet will not be able to maintain the current pace. Stanhope is confident operations will continue at the current level through the 90 day extension, which ends in September, but anything beyond that will force the government to make “challenging decisions.” General Stephan Abrial, Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, told reporters that if the campaign drags on, resources will become a critical issue. However, General Sir David Richards, head of the armed forces, insisted that Britain “can sustain this operation as long as we choose to,” and that Stanhope’s comments were misconstrued. The costs of the Libya campaign have given rise to calls to re-examine Britain’s decision to cut the Ark Royal Carrier and its Harrier fleet. (AP, AP, BBC, CNN)

JUNE 14: A NATO airstrike in Tripoli hit near Qaddafi’s compound. Journalists heard the blast and saw smoke rising from the area around the compound, but the regime has not commented on what the bombing targeted. (AP)

JUNE 13: NATO aircraft carried out strikes around Tripoli, Waddan, Misrata, Zlitan, and Sirte. In Tripoli they bombed a missile launcher and detection radar, and in Waddan they destroyed an ammunition storage facility. Around Misrata aircraft targeted one command and control facility, one artillery piece, three truck-mounted guns, two military trucks, and one shelter. The other strikes hit an armored vehicle storage facility at Zlitan and an anti-aircraft artillery piece at Sirte. (NATO)

JUNE 13: Sassi Garada, a Berber regime official in charge of operations in the West, has defected from Qaddafi’s government and fled the country. Garada served Qaddafi as an aide over the past four decades after being one of the first to support his bid for power. His reasons for defecting are unknown, and government officials refuse to disclose his location. (AP, Los Angeles Times, The Australian)

JUNE 13: The “Libyan Assets for Humanitarian Relief Act” will come before the Senate Banking Committee on Thursday. This bill would allow President Obama to use $4 billion of the Qaddafi regime’s frozen assets for Libyan humanitarian aid and it would authorize Congress to oversee distribution. The House also approved an amendment to a different bill further protesting President Obama’s decision to ignore the War Powers Act. In a bill funding military construction and the Department of Veterans Affairs, Representative Brad Sherman attached an amendment specifying that none of the money in the bill may be spent “in contravention of the War Powers Act.” Lawmakers had suggested the same measure on the June 2 bill to fund the Department of Homeland Security, but it failed to pass. The success of the new amendment demonstrates Congress’s growing frustration with President Obama. (Politico, WSJ, Washington Post, Al Jazeera, AFP)

JUNE 13: Libyans tweeting from Misrata have provided information on troop and tank movements that NATO used to coordinate airstrikes. British Wing Commander Mike Bracken reported that NATO collects intelligence from a number of places, including open sources on the internet. Officials stressed, however, that information from sources such as Twitter is cross-referenced with satellite imagery or traditional intelligence. (AFP)

JUNE 13: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton ends a three-day tour of Africa with a speech to the African Union. She highlighted the need for African nations to support the coalition’s operations against Qaddafi. Even though several countries have publicly called on Qaddafi to step down, stark divisions still remain. Many African countries opposed NATO intervention, and the only African states to recognize the National Transitional Council as Libya’s legitimate representative are Senegal and Gambia. (Reuters, AFP)

JUNE 13: Guido Westerwelle, Germany’s Foreign Minister, traveled to Benghazi to meet with the National Transitional Council.    During the visit, Germany officially recognized the NTC as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people. (AP, Reuters)

JUNE 12: Saturday’s airstrikes attacked targets around Tripoli, Misrata, Waddan, Al-Qaryat, and Brega. NATO hit three anti-aircraft artillery pieces, one missile launcher, and one grenade launcher at Tripoli. Aircraft also bombed Qaddafi’s compound in addition to a military airport in eastern Tripoli. The weapons struck at Misrata were two rocket launchers, two anti-aircraft artillery pieces, and one military truck. Airstrikes targeted ammunition storage facilities outside of both Waddan and Al-Qaryat in addition to four truck-mounted guns and a tank around Brega. (NATO, AP)

JUNE 11: NATO conducted airstrikes around Tripoli, Waddan, Misrata, and Zintan. The targets in Tripoli were military vehicle storage, one ammunition storage facility, one command and control node, one tank, two anti-aircraft guns, and one artillery piece. At Waddan NATO targeted an ammunition storage facility. Airstrikes also hit an armored vehicle at Misrata and a tank at Zintan. (NATO, NATO

JUNE 10: Turkey’s government offered Qaddafi a “guarantee” in return for leaving Libya. Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan did not specify what the guarantee is, but told reporters that they have not received a response. Erdogan promised to discuss the deal with allies once Qaddafi sends his response. (Reuters, AP)

JUNE 10: Secretary of Defense Robert Gates issued another harsh critique of NATO’s collective involvement in Libya while speaking at a think tank in Brussels. He underscored that, despite a unanimous decision in support of military operations, less than a half of NATO’s member countries are directly involved and under a third are carrying out airstrikes. Secretary Gates encouraged NATO countries to reconsider maintaining relatively small military budgets in light of the emergence of a new generation of American leaders whose view of NATO is not shaped by the Cold War. He expressed concern that NATO is divided between countries that shoulder the costs of military campaigns and those who share the benefits, but not the burden. (Los Angeles Times, WSJ, Washington Post)

JUNE 10: The cumulative amount of funding promised by the delegates at yesterday’s Libya Contact Group meeting comes to approximately $1.3 billion. In addition to Italy’s and the United States’ respective pledges of $600 million and $26.5 million, France offered around $400 million and Kuwait and Qatar promised to establish a combined transparent assistance account of $280 million. The total amount, while significant, still falls short of the $3 billion that the Transitional National Council requested. (New York Times, Al Jazeera)
JUNE 10: NATO spokeswoman Oana Lungescu denied that NATO was directly targeting Qaddafi in response to statements by an anonymous NATO official who implied that the current UN resolution justifies trying to kill the Libyan leader Qaddafi. She clarified that NATO was only targeting military assets that could be used to harm civilians. (CNN)
JUNE 10: NATO planes carried out at least three airstrikes in Tripoli early Friday morning. News agencies speculated that they targeted Qaddafi’s compound or the nearby military barracks. Other Friday strikes focused on a town west of Tripoli. NATO denied a report from Libyan state television that government forces shot down a helicopter around the town of Zlitan. (Al Jazeera, Reuters, Reuters)
JUNE 10: During his testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Secretary of Defense nominee Leon Panetta stated that concern about extremism among leaders of the National Transitional Council is “legitimate.” This has contributed to the reluctance of some U.S. officials to provide significant funds to the rebel group and the reason why the United States has not given the NTC official diplomatic recognition. Panetta did reinforce, however, that it was important to remove Qaddafi from power. (Los Angeles Times, Bloomberg)
JUNE 10: Norwegian Defense Minister Grete Faremo announced that it will reduce its Libyan contribution from six fighter jets to four because of the strain on Norway’s small air force.  Norway plans to completely withdraw from the operation by August 1. Their jets have conducted approximately ten percent of NATO’s airstrikes in Libya since March 31. (AP)
JUNE 9: Germany’s Defense Minister Thomas de Maiziere expanded on his country’s promise to assist with Libyan reconstruction after Qaddafi’s removal, stating that Germany might send troops as part of a U.N. military force to bolster the infrastructure or train security forces. Germany continues its refusal to participate in NATO airstrikes. (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 9: NATO carried out airstrikes around Tripoli, Misrata, and Brega on Thursday. The targets in Tripoli were a vehicle storage facility, two command and control facilities, one early warning radar, two missile launchers, two anti-aircraft guns, and three tanks. At Misrata, aircraft struck two rocket launchers, one truck-mounted gun, four tanks, one heavy equipment transport, two command and control nodes, two armored fighting vehicles, and two checkpoints. The only target at Brega was a command and control facility. (NATO)
JUNE 9: U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates “bluntly” called for increased participation by NATO partners in Libya while speaking to defense ministers from the alliance’s member countries. Gates said that Germany and Poland must begin to participate while Spain, the Netherlands, and Turkey also needed to increase their commitment. The speech comes as an escalating bombardment has left funding and equipment for stretched thin. In response, Germany again refused to become militarily involved and Spain said that it would not expand its contribution. (WSJ, Los Angeles Times)
JUNE 9: The United Arab Emirates hosted the third meeting of the Libya Contact Group attended by key NATO members, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Russia, as well as delegates from the United Nations, the Arab League, and the organization of Islamic Conference. In answer to the National Transitional Council’s pleas for more funding Italy promised to give nearly $600 million in loans and fuel products. The United States, while still not giving the NTC official diplomatic recognition, agreed to increase humanitarian assistance by $26.5 billion. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton also called upon nations to increase the pressure on Qaddafi’s regime. The meeting is close to arranging a mechanism for NTC to access funding. (AFP, AFP, AP, AP, Reuters, Al Jazeera, BBC)
JUNE 9: Heavy airstrikes resumed in Tripoli. There have been at least fourteen attacks, though little is known about the targets. Such a high concentration of strikes indicates a return to the level of intensity set previously by Tuesday’s bombardment of military installations and Qaddafi’s compound. (AP)
JUNE 9: NATO rejected a lead role in post-Qaddafi Libya. While the organization is willing to help, said Secretary-General Rasmussen, most of the effort should come from the United Nations and the international community. (AP, WSJ)
JUNE 8: U.S. Senators are proposing a bill that would allow President Obama to use some of the frozen Libyan assets to pay for humanitarian aid. (Reuters)
JUNE 8: An airstrike destroyed a Qaddafi retreat encampment in the desert southeast of Tripoli. NATO designated the camp a command and control facility though there is little to suggest that it is being actively used to threaten civilians. Strikes also targeted one vehicle storage facility, one missile storage facility, one missile site in or around Tripoli, as well as a tank and four armored fighting vehicles. Around Misrata, planes struck an electronic warfare vehicle, a military training camp, and one air asset. (NATO, New York Times)
JUNE 8: The International Criminal Court plans to investigate allegations that Qaddafi has authorized using rape as a weapon. There is evidence that the government purchased and distributed Viagra-type drugs, but it is difficult to determine how widespread the use of rape was and whether it can be attributed to Qaddafi. (BBC, Reuters)
JUNE 8: Mauritanian President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, head of the African Union’s Libyan mediation team, publicly acknowledged that Qaddafi had to step down. His call exposes divisions within the African Union which has condemned the NATO airstrikes and backed a transition plan that included a ceasefire. This is the first time that an AU statement supported Qaddafi’s removal. (AFP)
JUNE 8: The Department of Defense confirmed that the Libyan mission costs have already reached $664 million. At this rate, costs will exceed the $750 million estimate provided by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates by approximately $247 million at the end of NATO’s authorized period. (WSJ)
JUNE 8: Spain’s government has pledged to give the rebels humanitarian aid and has recognized the National Transitional Council as Libya’s legitimate representative. (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 8: Sweden’s government has agreed to extend its military commitment in Libya for three months past the previous expiration date of June 22.  Its participation will, however, be cut from eight fighter jets down to five. (Al Jazeera, Reuters Africa)
JUNE 8: Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen announced that NATO will not put ground troops into Libya. In addition to calling for more NATO members to contribute to the military operations, he pushed for  the international community to begin planning for a potentially imminet post-Qaddafi Libya. Rasmussen also endorsed the National Transitional Council. Liam Fox, the UK’s defense secretary, has echoed these sentiments. (AP, BBC, Al Jazeera, Reuters Africa, Washington Post)
JUNE 8: The heavy bombing on Tuesday continued into Wednesday morning as the NATO air campaign intensifies. Some officials are concerned that the heightened operational tempot is beginning to stretch NATO forces. (Al Jazeera, Wall Street Journal, Reuters, Reuters Africa)
JUNE 7: NATO’s airstrike escalation peaked Tuesday as more than 80 bombs were dropped in Tripoli. Throughout the day NATO targeted six command and control facilities, one vehicle storage facility, two antiaircraft guns, and one air surveillance radar in or around Tripoli. (New York Times, NATO)
JUNE 7: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton left for the June 9th meeting of the Libya Contact Group in United Arab Emirates. She is also meeting with NATO allies to discuss the Libyan air campaign and post-Qaddafi strategy. (Bloomberg, Washington Post)
JUNE 7: A non-binding Congressional resolution supporting the limited use of force in Libya stalled in the Senate on Tuesday when the Senate Foreign Relations Committee postponed action on the measure. Senator Jim Webb and Senator Bob Corker are drafting a new, tougher resolution to counter the motion introduced by Senators Kerry and McCain, . (Washington Post, Politico)
JUNE 7: President Obama and German Chancellor Angela Merkel met on Tuesday to discuss economic issues and the conflict in Libya. While Germany did not commit military forces to the NATO mission, Merkel pledged to take part once Qaddafi is removed. (Washington Post)
JUNE 7: Switzerland froze an additional $350 million worth of Libyan assets.  This raises the total to $780 million.  (MSNBC)
JUNE 7: The European Union announced that it was extending the assets freeze to six Libyan ports in addition to their already implemented travel ban and other sanctions.   (Reuters)
JUNE 7: Representative Dennis Kucinich released a ten-point plan that calls for a ceasefire and includes plans for political reform, victim reparations, and repatriation of Libyan assets.  (Washington Post)
JUNE 7: Moussa Koussa, the former Libyan foreign minister and intelligence chief who turned himself in on March 30, is reportedly at a safe house in Abu Dhabi.  It is suspected that he may be providing NATO with intelligence on high-profile military targets.  Prime Minister David Cameron’s office refused to comment on Koussa’s location or involvement.  (NBC)
JUNE 7: The latest series of NATO airstrikes in Tripoli targeted the Popular Guard and Revolutionary Guard compounds close to Qaddafi’s residence and a telecommunications station.  The bombings continued from Monday night into Tuesday morning, coming in the wake of the rebel seizure of Yefran.  Over the past few days strikes in Tripoli have increased and, in a departure from the norm, are beginning to take place in daytime hours as well.  UN envoy Abdul-Elah al-Khatib is expected in Libya, but there is no word from government spokesmen as to who he will meet with or how long he will stay.  Spain is planning diplomatic visits to meet with Libyan rebels and attend a meeting of the Libya Contact Group.  The leader of Mauritania, who is heading Africa’s mediation efforts, has publicly stated that Qaddafi should step down.  (BBC, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Reuters, Washington Post, New York Times)
JUNE 6: The International Crisis Group issued a report urging NATO and the rebels to institute a ceasefire.  The report argues that the precondition of Qaddafi stepping down is preventing negotiations and prolonging violence.  (Reuters)
JUNE 6: NATO strikes on Monday hit a command and control facility in Tripoli and one missile storage facility, two command and control nodes, one vehicle storage facility, and four missile launchers nearby the city.  The command and control facility in Tripoli was a key Qaddafi intelligence headquarters building.  They also targeted one mobile command and control node around Sirte.  (NATO, NATO)
JUNE 6: As part of the increasing frequency of NATO strikes around Tripoli, aircraft targeted missile storage areas and launchers, command and control facilities, and a radar system. These latest strikes come as Russian mediator Mikhail Margelov prepares to head to Benghazi. Russia has voiced concern about the introduction of helicopters to military operations, considering it to be a step towards a land campaign. The NATO Secretary General, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, has publicly called for greater participation by NATO members in the campaign against Qaddafi. The Human Rights Watch issued a report detailing suspicions that rebels have detained dozens of people suspected of collaborating with or for Qaddafi. Research for the report came from interviews with detainees in three opposition-held cities. (Associated Press, NATO, Al Arabiya)  
JUNE 6: British Foreign Secretary William Hague admitted that NATO’s military campaign to remove Qaddafi could last past Christmas. He also said that there is a possibility that British troops may be put in Libya as peacekeepers when the regime falls. Hague also met with rebel leaders and pressed for a detailed post-Qaddafi government plan. He encouraged them to draw from the lessons learned after the transition of power in Iraq, and particularly to avoid any program similar to de-Baathification. Western countries are concerned about the length of the campaign and the possibility of fracturing amongst the rebel forces when combat ends. (New York Times, Sydney Morning Herald)
JUNE 5: Western and Libyan business officials are concerned about the prospects for stability in Libya if Qaddafi were to step down, with many fearing a civil war split along regional or tribal lines.  Ongoing and intensifying military operations have convinced many investors that it will be a long wait before business can resume, thus prompting calls for more peace dialogues, and for rebels to lay out their transition and state-building plans. (Washington Post)
JUNE 5: A human rights group, with the help of the Secretary of State, has arranged for a private plane to bring Iman Obeidi and her father to the United States for safety. Obeidi gained international noteriety when she, speaking before foreign journalists, claimed to have been raped by Qaddafi's troops. (Los Angeles Times)
JUNE 4: On June 4 NATO attack helicopters were used for the first time in Operation Unified Protector.  Helicopters provide NATO forces with more flexibility and precision in engaging pro-Qaddafi ground forces, also enabling NATO to target govenrment troops in dense urban areas .  However, the low-flying helicopters are more vulnerable to ground fire than the fast-moving warplanes that NATO has relied on thus far. The helicopters attacked a regime radar installation and a military checkpoint around the eastern town of Brega. (NATO, Reuters, Wall Street Journal)
JUNE 3: Norwegian Minister of Defense, Grete Faremo, has said that Norway will continue to contribute to UNSCR 1973 but will not put troops on the ground for the time being. The government is avoiding deciding on the size and scope of military contributions past June 24, but Norwegian researches anticipate Norway’s involvement in the use of ground forces. (The Foreigner)
JUNE 3: Chinese diplomat Zhang Zhiliang met with Mustafa Abdel Jalil, the leader of the rebel National Transitional Council in Qatar, though the Chinese Foreign Ministry provided no details of the what was discussed. France is also increasing its military pressure and encouraging those around Qaddafi to try to persuade him to step down. Major General John Lorimer reported that British warplanes destroyed two tanks and two armored personnel carriers in Yafran on June 2nd. (Reuters)
JUNE 3: The House of Representatives has passed a resolution sponsored by House Speaker John Boehner that requires Obama to define the United States’s role in Libya within two weeks. The resolution reaffirms the previous vote forbidding U.S. “boots on the ground” in Libya and gives Congress the power to stop the funds for military operations. (Reuters, New York Times)

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Pro-Qaddafi Movements and Statements



AUGUST 1: Saif al-Islam Qaddafi vowed to continue the war against the rebels regardless of whether or not NATO stops its air campaign. (Reuters)
AUGUST 1: Libya’s Undersecretary for Expatriates, Immigrants and Refugee Affairs, Abulhadi Lahweej, asked Filipino workers to return to Tripoli, stating that the government had contained the violence to rebel-held areas. Raul Hernandez, the Philippine Foreign Affairs spokesman, stated that although the government of the Philippines recognizes Qaddafi as the legitimate leader of Libya, it will continue the policy of not deploying workers to Libya. The country evacuated over 14,000 Filipinos in March, though approximately 2,000 more (primarily health workers) remain in Libya. (AP, Gulf News)
AUGUST 1: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez read a letter from Qaddafi on Venezuelan national television. Chavez pledged not to recognize the national Transitional Council and condemned NATO’s air campaign. He expressed his support of Qaddafi, advising him to “Live and be victorious. We’re with you.” The letter, which thanked Qaddafi’s allies in Latin America for their support, was delivered by a delegation led by regime Finance Minister Abdul Hafid Al Zleitni. Venezuelan Foreign Minister Nicolas Maduro should meet with the Libyan delegation on Tuesday. (AP, Reuters, Bloomberg)
AUGUST 1: A strong Qaddafi counterattack retook the Western town of Jawsh and drove out rebel forces. Elsewhere in the Nafusa Mountains, loyalist troops occupying the low-lying town of TIji remained besieged. (WP, AFP, Al Jazeera, AFP)
AUGUST 1: Abubakr Yunus Jaber, Qaddafi’s Defense Minister, announced the creation of a general pardon that will grant amnesty to any member of the military who had defected and fought with the rebels on the condition that they return to fight for the regime. (WP)
AUGUST 1: Qaddafi appears to be trying to hire a public relations firm to improve his image and issue briefings on his ‘moral’ and ‘legal’ claims to power. He intends to blame the NATO air campaign on negative public relations. (Daily Mail)
JULY 31: Qaddafi’s government claimed it is in contact with members of the National Transitional Council. However, Libyan deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim denied that they had had recent contact with General Abdel Fatah Younis. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 30: Loyalist troops defending the town of Tiji in the Nafusa Mountains are under siege by rebel forces. (Reuters)
JULY 30: Government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim stated that the killing of General Abdel Fatah Younis proves that the rebels are incapable of ruling. He observed that “It is a nice slap [in] the face of the British that the [rebel National Transitional] council that they recognized could not protect its own commander of the army.” Ibrahim claimed that al-Qaeda was responsible for the killing, but that the NTC was covering up the terrorist group’s involvement. He also accused Fawzi Bu Kitf, head of the Union of Revolutionary Forces, and Ismail al-Sallabi, head of the Feb 17 Brigade, of involvement in the assassination of General Abdel Fatah Younis. Both of them have denied any knowledge and claim that the killers acted alone. (BBC, BBC, Reuters)
JULY 29: The Libyan Broadcasting Authority lost three of its satellite broadcasting dishes in a NATO airstrikes on Tripoli. The Authority claims the bombing killed three of its technicians while injuring 15 other people and accused NATO of striking a non-military target. (BBC, BBC, Reuters, AFP)
JULY 28: Libyan television reported planes flying over Tripoli as three explosions shook the city. (Al Jazeera, BBC)
JULY 28: Loyalist soldiers captured in the rebels’ latest Nafusa Mountains offensive report that morale has reached new lows among Qaddafi troops. Officers are compelling soldiers to fight by threatening them and their families with death. (Reuters)
JULY 28: Regime forces in the Nafusa Mountains at the towns of Jawsh, Ghazaya, Badr, and Takut face new rebel offensives trying to secure the supply route into Tunisia. The rebels briefly drove loyalist fighters out of Jawsh, but a counterattack and Grad rockets allowed government forces to retake the town. There are no confirmed reports of who is in control of the other towns. (AP, Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JULY 27: Qaddafi’s deputy Foreign Minister, Khaled Kaim, denounced the UK’s recognition of the NTC as Libya’s sole governing authority. He condemned the act as “unprecedented in diplomatic history.” The regime declared that the UK’s embassy closure is illegal. They will attempt to reverse the decision through both British courts and the International Court of Justice. He also criticized Britain and France’s support of the eastern rebels, telling them that they were “flogging a dead horse.” (BBC, Reuters, Reuters, CSM, RTTNews)
JULY 27: Qaddafi threatened the rebels in the western Nafusa Mountains in an audio message broadcast on state TV. He demanded that they lay down their weapons and surrender. He also dared NATO to commit ground troops to Libya. (AP, Reuters, RTTNews)
JULY 26: Qaddafi’s Prime Minister, Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi, told UN envoy Abdul Elah al-Khatib that NATO must end its airstrikes before talks between the government and the rebels can begin. Al-Mahmoudi reported that they had a productive discussion about implementing UN resolutions, but not about negotiating an end to the conflict.  (Reuters, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera)
JULY 26: A Libyan state television broadcast of a pro-Qaddafi rally featured Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, the Lockerbie bomber released from his Scottish prison almost two years ago. (BBC, NY Times, NY Times, AP)
JULY 26: Human Rights Watch consultant Sidney Kwiram reported that they had found government troops planting landmines at every major front line. Widespread use of mines poses a large threat to civilians. (WP)

JULY 25: The regime accused NATO of killing eight people in their bombing of food warehouses and a clinic in Zlitan. They brought Tripoli journalists to see the wreckage, but the reporters could not verify any of the claims. NATO stated that surveillance had shown Qaddafi forces used the buildings as command and control centers, staging posts, and ammunition depots. Rebels in the area corroborated NATO’s intelligence. (Reuters, Al Jazeera, Middle East Online)

JULY 24: Qaddafi forces launched over 70 Grad rockets into the rebel-held town of Nalut in the Nafusa Mountains. (NY Times)
JULY 23: Storekeepers in Tripoli report that business is usual within the city. One employee remarked, “Gasoline is really a much bigger worry than the rebels.” (AP)
JULY 23: Regime officials transported foreign journalists to witness a pro-Qaddafi demonstration in Sirte. The journalists reported no unrest along the travel route and several thousand people at the demonstration. (BBC)
JULY 22: Regime spokesman Moussa Ibrahim denied that there was an attack at the Sheraton hotel in Tripoli. Instead, he claimed the explosion was from a cooking gas cylinder and that rebel attempts to take responsibility were mere propaganda. Ibrahim announced that the government is willing to enter into “productive” talks with U.S. officials. He also reported that Qaddafi is encouraging the Libyan people to talk to the rebels, but still refuses to speak to the opposition himself. (Al Jazeera, Reuters, Reuters, AP, Al Jazeera)

JULY 22: Libyan officials report that a NATO airstrike hit a factory in Brega, killing six guards. The plant produces large pipes that are essential to the Great Man Made River irrigation project, which provides water to around 70 percent of Libya. The managing director of the state company which runs the irrigation project stated that the attack will “be a major setback to future projects.” (AP, Reuters)

JULY 21: According to a regime official, increased demand and infrastructure damage have forced Qaddafi to seek new supply deals to import fuels into eastern Libya. Loyalist forces have reportedly carried out multiple raids against oilfields in Benghazi. The regime is intent on keeping the National Transitional Council from launching its own oil business. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 21: General National Maritime Transport, a company owned by Qaddafi’s son Hannibal, is in talks with two companies based in Hong Kong and Singapore to sell Libya’s fleet of 22 shipping vessels. This effort to acquire new funds could be a sign of the regime’s dwindling supplies of money and fuel. (Foreign Policy)
JULY 21: Reporters in Tripoli witnessing large pro-Qaddafi rallies suspect that the rebel theory that the city will eventually implode is oversimplifying the situation. There is no question that Qaddafi still enjoys considerable support, but it is difficult for reporters to tell how much power dissidents in the city have. (BBC)
JULY 21: Loyalist forces launched a counterattack against rebels in the eastern town of Souk al-Thulatha. Qaddafi troops, backed by tanks, reportedly surrounded the town and flattened homes with shelling. (Reuters)
JULY 21: Qaddafi firmly ruled out negotiation with the rebels, announcing that “there will be no talks between me and them until Judgment Day.” He delivered his speech in an audio message broadcast to thousands of loyalists in Qaddafi’s hometown of Sirte. (Reuters, AP, Al Jazeera)
JULY 21: The regime’s Planning and Finance Minister, Abdulhafid Zlitini, estimates that the conflict has cost Libya’s economy around $50 billion. The disruption of oil production alone cost nearly $20 billion. Zlitini also stated that the government had fixed the prices of rice, flour, meat, eggs, sugar, and edible oils, which has required a large amount of funds. (CNN)
JULY 21: In a sign that loyalist forces may be running low on manpower, Libyan state TV broadcast an appeal for volunteers to join the army. (The Guardian)
JULY 21: Government troops in the western Mountain town of Bir al-Ghanam exchanged rocket fire with rebel forces to the south in Bir Ayad. The regime continues to deny that rebel forces have taken the eastern coastal city of Brega. (AFP, Al Jazeera)

JULY 21: At a rally in al-Aziziya, Qaddafi underscored his intention to mobilize allied tribes against the rebels and incite fear amongst the opposition in the western mountains. Regime spokesman Moussa Ibrahim announced that the government had distributed 1.2 million weapons to tribal members. News agencies have not confirmed the amount of support Qaddafi enjoys amongst Libya’s tribesmen, nor whether they are capable of launching an offensive. (AP)

JULY 20: A government spokesman estimates that the rebel casualties from the fighting in Brega number close to 500. (AP)

JULY 20: Qaddafi’s Foreign Minister Abdelati al-Obeidi traveled to Moscow to hold talks with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov. Russia did not announce any formal details of the meeting, but the Libyan ambassador to Moscow rejected the idea that it would center on Qaddafi leaving power. Obeidi stated that “Libya will welcome any Russian role in the peaceful settlement of the Libyan conflict,” and that he supported the African Union’s ceasefire and negotiation proposal. (Al Arabiya, RIA Novosti)
JULY 19: Regime Prime Minister Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi stated that the NATO airstrikes must stop before any negotiations can begin. He dismissed the idea that Qaddafi must step aside for talks to begin or that the Libyan Contact Group would be a partner in the meetings. (France24)
JULY 19: Qaddafi broadcasted another audio message to supporters, branding the conflict as a fight for Libya’s way of life. In response, nearly 5,000 people, primarily from the Warshafana tribe, staged a pro-Qaddafi demonstration in the main square of al-Aziziya, 30 miles south of Tripoli. (AP)
JULY 19: Reporters have noted that the once daily barrages of Grad rockets on rebel positions throughout Libya have been reduced and typically only take place when the rebels attack. Instead of constant artillery fire, government troops are beginning to concentrate more on laying land mines. (WSJ)

JULY 18: Government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim revealed that regime representatives met with U.S. officials in Tunisia on Saturday. Ibrahim called the meeting “a first-step dialogue” in repairing relations with the United States. According to Ibrahim, the regime is willing to enter into peace talks, but only without any preconditions. Ibrahim also denied that the rebels had taken Brega. Instead, he insisted that government forces remained firmly in control of the city and that 520 rebels had died in multiple failed land and sea assaults. He swore that “We will turn Brega into hell. We will not give Brega up even if it causes the death of thousands of rebels and the destruction of the city.” (AP, BBC, Reuters, LA Times)

JULY 18: Opposition forces reportedly lost control over the eastern oil town of Brega and retreated towards Ras Lanuf. (BBC, Reuters, Reuters, Christian Science Monitor)
JULY 17: Government forces exchanged artillery fire with the rebels holding Qualish in the Nafusa Mountains. On the Eastern front, rebel forces have advanced into the oil town of Brega and are fighting Qaddafi troops in the street for control of the city. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)
JULY 16: Qaddafi made another audio address to pro-government demonstrators at Zawiya insisting that Libya will keep fighting and will not surrender to NATO’s air campaign. Regime officials bused foreign journalists to the demonstrations in Zawiya, but the reporters could not tell the sincerity of those involved or if they were from the town. The rally had a very large security presence. (AP, AP)
JULY 15: A government spokesman responded to the Contact Group meeting in Istanbul by telling reporters that Libyans “will defend our oil to the last drop of blood and we are going to use everything.” Qaddafi ignored the Group’s calls for him to step down, using pro-government rallies to dismiss the importance of widespread international support for the rebels. He reiterated his refusal to leave Libya in a speech broadcast to his supporters in Zawiya. (AP, NY Times, LA Times, BBC, Al Jazeera, WSJ)
JULY 15: Government forces repulsed a rebel offensive launched against the eastern oil town of Brega. Regime troops kept control of the town, forcing the rebels back to their positions further east. (AP)
JULY 15: Qaddafi released an audio statement criticizing the NATO airstrikes for killing children. He also called on his supporters to “Prepare to march to the Western Mountains.” Qaddafi promised to fight to the end, and stated that Libya would be the end of NATO. (Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JULY 15: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez urged Qaddafi to resist pressure to step down. He chided European leaders to not paying more attention to issues in their own country. (AFP)
JULY 14: The Libyan government denied Russian reports that Qaddafi had threatened to blow up Tripoli if the rebels succeeded in capturing the city. Regime spokesman Moussa Ibrahim called the claims “unfounded, untrue. We would never bombard our cities.” (AP)
JULY 14: Qaddafi’s Prime Minister, Al-Baghdadi Al-Mahmoudi, barred Italy’s oil companies from future participation in Libya’s oil sector because of Italy’s role in the NATO airstrikes.   Italy is the first permanently barred country because the two countries had previously signed friendship agreements forbidding aggressive acts. (AP)

JULY 13: Analysis of Qaddafi’s attack to retake Qualish indicates that his forces were effective and still obeying orders. After seizing Qualish, the government troops began to advance on Zintan, but were met by hundreds of trucks filled with rebel fighters. Government forces, while enough to rout the small number of rebel troops that held Qualish, were unable to hold their newly gained territory against the growing number of opposition fighters and were forced to retreat. By the end of the day, the front lines remained unchanged. (WP, Reuters, NY Times)

JULY 13: Qaddafi forces launched a counterattack to retake the town of Qualish in the Nafusa Mountains. They successfully regained control of the area. (Reuters, Reuters, AFP)
JULY 12: Libyan Prime Minister Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi announced that the regime is willing to start negotiations if NATO stops its air campaign. Responding to the demands from rebels and Western countries, Mahmoudi assured that “The Guide [Qaddafi] will not intervene in discussions. He is ready to respect the decision of the people.” (Reuters)
JULY 12: Qaddafi’s Agriculture Minister, Abdel Maguid al-Gaud, announced that only one of six turbines in a power plant that pumps water to Benghazi is working. One of the plant managers speculated that the remaining turbine might last around three more months. This means that, if there is not a ceasefire to make repairs, the poor maintenance will exacerbate the rebels’ water shortages. (AP)
JULY 11: Egypt’s state-owned satellite operator, Nilesat, took Libya’s 14 regime-owned TV stations off the air after an Egyptian court ruled that their programming incites against the opposition and spreads false information. The stations will remain off the air until they get another satellite to broadcast them. (AP, Reuters)

JULY 11: Abu Dhabi’s First Gulf Bank announced that it is cutting ties with its subsidiary in Libya, the First Gulf Libya Bank. The FGB listed its investment, valued around $107.8 million, as “available for sale.” (Reuters)

JULY 11: Saif al-Islam Qaddafi announced that the regime is currently involved in direct talks with the French government. Saif claims that France promised “When we [France] reach an agreement with [Tripoli], we will force the council to cease fire.” France’s foreign ministry spokesman denied any direct contact, but clarified that “we pass [the Libyan regime] messages in liaison.” The spokesman also insisted that any political solution start with Qaddafi’s removal from power. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 11: Two Libyan diplomats visited Israel intending to “change Libya’s image.” However, Israel’s Interior Ministry denies authorizing visas for either of the diplomats. (Haaretz)
JULY 10: Regime officials brought journalists to the government strongholds of Gharyan and al-Assabaa in the Nafusa Mountains. They reported seeing armed civilians and Qaddafi troops who swore to defend their land.  In Gharyan, there was a small group of women practicing with automatic weapons and grenade launchers. Some of the people journalists spoke to acknowledged resistance in the town but insisted it was too weak to do anything. (AP)
JULY 10: Government troops tried to drive rebel forces out of al-Qualish in the Nafusa Mountains with heavy artillery fire, but were unsuccessful. (Reuters)
JULY 10: Libyan Prime Minister, al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi, and Foreign Minister, Abdelati Obeidi, hosted talks with the UN special envoy for Libya to discuss the idea of a managed transition in the country. (Reuters)
JULY 8: Libyan state TV broadcast an audio message from Qaddafi insisting that “NATO will fall under the feet of the Libyan masses, under the feet of the free Libyan people.” He once again threatened Europe, telling leaders that “Libyans will advance toward Europe willing to commit suicide.” After the broadcast, thousands gathered in Tripoli’s Green Square to demonstrate their support for the regime. There were also pro-government demonstrations in Sabha, 800 km to the south. (AP, Bloomberg, Al Jazeera, LA Times)
JULY 8: Human Rights Watch reported that government forces laid at least three minefields with anti-personnel and anti-vehicle mines outside the city of al-Qualish in the Nafusa Mountains. Two of the minefields were alongside a road leading to a Boy Scout building, and the third was next to the main road into the town. Rebel fighters have marked the areas to warn civilians.   (Human Rights Watch)
JULY 7: Captured fighters from Qaddafi forces revealed problems facing regime troops. Soldiers in the Nafusa Mountains face supply problems, especially fuel and ammunition, and low morale is becoming chronic. Qaddafi is reportedly depending more on foreign fighters because domestic soldiers are growing more concerned about fighting fellow Libyans. The government denied using foreign fighters, but acknowledged that its fighting capability is less than ideal due to delayed arms purchases. The regime instead insists that the rebels are using imported fighters. (AP)
JULY 7: The Libyan government has started to negotiate with Russian and Chinese firms to take over and resume the projects of Italian energy firm ENI after it recently withdrew its staff from Libya. (Reuters)
JULY 6: Qaddafi’s government intends to demonstrate its continued control over Libya by trying rebel leaders for treason. The courts will charge 21 rebel officials in absentia next week. Government prosecutors confirmed that treason convictions can bring death sentences. If convicted, the Libyan government plans to request international assistance in apprehending the leaders. (AP, LA Times, Christian Science Monitor)
JULY 6: Libyan Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim speculated that the two sides could resolve the conflict before Ramadan. He accused NATO of increasing its airstrikes and backing foreign mercenaries to support the rebels’ ground campaign. Kaim claims that Libyan forces have evidence of Western and Arab-backed Colombian mercenaries fighting with the rebels advancing from Misrata. According to Kaim, the recent strikes are targeting civilian infrastructure and police checkpoints. (Reuters, AP)
JULY 6: Government forces fired nearly 500 rockets into Zlitan, a town just west of Misrata. Some of the rockets reportedly killed two civilians. (AP)
JULY 6: Government forces came under attack at the town of al-Qualish, located southeast of Yafran. Regime troops retreated after a 6-hour battle, allowing rebel forces to capture the town. Giving up the town has given the rebels the opportunity to advance on Gharyan, another regime-held city. (Reuters, Reuters)
JULY 5: Two rebel sympathizers who recently escaped from Tripoli revealed that Qaddafi maintained a firm grip on the city and its population. One of the men described the atmosphere of the city as “one of fear and paranoia.” Qaddafi has closed several mosques, allowing only ones with loyal imams to remain open.  He also maintains a heavy security forces presence within the city. While there may be skirmishes between government troops and rebel sympathizers at night, the main forms of resistance are limited to graffiti and releasing balloons with the opposition’s flag tied to them. (AP)
JULY 5: A Russian newspaper reported that Qaddafi had agreed to give up power in exchange for a security guarantee. A government spokesman denied these claims, specifying that the talks had dealt with a ceasefire, humanitarian aid, and diplomatic exchange, not about stepping down or leaving Libya. (Politico, Reuters)
JULY 5: Rebels report that government shelling in Misrata killed 11 opposition fighters and wounded at least 42 more. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 4: Spokesman for the rebels Moussa Ibrahim revealed that there had been meetings between opposition and government representatives in Rome, Cairo and Oslo. He claimed that Italian officials had observed the meeting in Rome, which the Italian foreign ministry has denied. (BBC, Politico, Al Arabiya)
JULY 4: The president of the World Chess Federation, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, made his second trip to Tripoli, acting as Moscow’s unofficial contact with Qaddafi. (NY Times)
JULY 4: The Libyan government announced it intercepted two boats from Qatar that were loaded with weapons intended for the rebels. Government forces captured the boats near the town of Janzour, just west of Tripoli. Eleven rebels were also taken captive. The boats carried about 100 Belgian-made assault rifles and the necessary ammunition, among other weaponry. (AP, Al Jazeera)
JULY 3: Saif al-Islam Qaddafi expressed his certainty that the Western powers are going to lose their military campaign. He admitted that the regime was ready for democracy, elections, a new constitution, and a ceasefire, but that the rebels were always refusing. Saif confirmed that his father refused to leave the country. (Reuters, AP)
JULY 2: The African Union passed a decision stating that its member states that they should ignore the ICC arrest warrant issued for Qaddafi because they see the warrants as complicating the peace process. Regime spokesman Moussa Ibrahim was pleased with the decision, and welcomed an AU roadmap for dialogues with the opposition. He confirmed that Qaddafi would not be involved in the talks. (AP, BBC, AP)
JULY 1: A Grad rocket attack on rebels outside of government-held Bir al-Ghanam pushed back opposition forces. (Reuters, Reuters)
JULY 1: Saif al-Islam Qaddafi, Muammar Qaddafi’s son, denied that neither he nor his father ordered troops to kill civilian protestors as the ICC prosecutors charge. He claims that most of the deaths came from soldiers firing in self defense on protestors attempting to storm military sites. (AP)
JULY 1: A Libyan Investment Authority (LIA) internal report leaked on Friday reveals complaints about steep fees even as the LIA lost money on investments. The LIA had invested a combined $1.4 billion in six different funds in January 2009, which has shrunk to $1.08 billion. One of the funds, managed by the Permal Group, was down to $180.9 million from $300 million, with losses from fees alone totaling $27 million.   The LIA report complained of “very poor structure and management.” The firms accused of charging exorbitant fees decline to comment. An audit of the LIA’s foreign investment portfolio by British consulting firm KPMG, submitted in April 2010, recommended that “portfolio management tools, risk management tools, investment accounting, reconciliations and reporting systems are urgently required.” (AP, NY Times, WSJ)
JUNE 30: In an interview aired on Thursday, Muammar Qaddafi’s daughter announced that there are currently direct and indirect negotiations between regime officials and opposition forces. She stated that, in order to stop the bloodshed, “we are ready to ally ourselves with the devil, with the rebel army,” but she dismissed the possibility of Qaddafi leaving the country. Aisha Qaddafi also labeled France’s bombing campaign as an attempt by President Sarkozy to gain votes. It is not clear when the interview was originally filmed. (AP, Reuters, Reuters)

JUNE 30: After Qaddafi’s call for new volunteers, women are traveling to a training facility in Bani Walid for weapons practice to “defend Muammar and the country.” There are no numbers for how many people are attending or have graduated from Bani Walid. (CNN)

JUNE 30: British Apache helicopters struck a government checkpoint and two military vehicles near al Khoms. Qaddafi forces are expected to mount an attack on Zlitan soon. (Reuters)
JUNE 29: Libya’s new Energy Minister, Omran Bukra, appointed earlier in the week, announced that Libya is down to producing 20,000 barrels of oil per day. This figure is a fraction of the prewar output of 1.7 million barrels a day. (AP)
JUNE 29: Human Rights Watch’s latest report reveals that Qaddafi forces mistreated medical staff and patients during their occupation of the hospital at Yafran. The occupation, which lasted from April 19 until the beginning of June and violated international law, placed thirty staff and three patients at risk by not allowing them to leave the building. (HRW)
JUNE 29: The chairman of the African Union Commission, Jean Ping, condemned the ICC’s arrest warrants and France’s weapons airdrops. He warned that the warrants “pours oil on the fire” and complicates the situation instead of contributing to a final solution. Ping does not believe in that preconditions for talks between the rebels and the regime are necessary, and condemned the weapons drops as increasing the “risk of civil war, risk of partition of the country, the risk of Somalisation of the country.” He also mentioned that risks from the drops were even higher for neighboring countries, as he claims to have proof that Al Qaida has gained some of the weapons. (Bloomberg, BBC, Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 29: Mohammed Hijazi, Qaddafi’s Health Minister, traveled to Egypt to ask officials for aid to solve the medical supply shortage in Libya. Hijazi plans to remain in Cairo for several days. (Al Arabiya)
JUNE 29: A regime spokesperson announced that Libya had expelled a Reuters journalist and accused the news agency of adopting an deliberate anti-government bias. Other Reuters journalists remain in Tripoli. (AP

JUNE 29: Prime Minister Al-Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi dismissed claims of a rebel advance on Tripoli from the Nafusa Mountains. He assured the press that “The situation in the western mountains is good, and it’s under control.” Other officials at government-held towns reported that the situation was much better than how the media portrayed it. (AP

JUNE 28: Qaddafi forces at the Ghaaa military base, 15 miles south of Zintan, faced a two-pronged attack from rebel troops. The regime forces inflicted casualties on the opposition but had to retreat, allowing rebels to seize several tons of arms as well as dozens of military vehicles.   Regime artillery did repel an advance on the town of Twama. (LA Times)

JUNE 28: Themba Langa, Qaddafi’s South African lawyer, announced that the ICC has no jurisdiction in Libya because the country did not sign or ratify the treaty that created the court. He also insisted that Qaddafi has immunity as a head of state. (Bloomberg)

JUNE 27: Qaddafi’s wife, Safia, and Libyan Finance Minister Abdulhafid Zlitini were added to the list of individuals banned from leaving the country and had their foreign assets frozen. The Zueitina Oil Company also had sanctions imposed on it. (Reuters)

JUNE 27: Qaddafi’s government rejected the authority of the International Criminal Court after it issued warrants for Muammar Qaddafi, his son Saif, and intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanoussi. Libyan spokesman Moussa Ibrahim contended that the ICC has no legitimacy and accused the court of targeting Africans while ignoring NATO’s crimes in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya. (WSJ, LA Times, AP)

JUNE 27: The Tunisian state news agency reported that three Qaddafi regime ministers, Foreign Minister Abdelati Obeidi, Health Minister Ahmed Hijazi, and Social Affairs Minister Ibrahim Sherif, had traveled to Tunisia to negotiate with “several foreign parties.” There were no details provided about the subject of the talks. (BBC, Reuters, Reuters)
JUNE 26: Qaddafi forces are defending Bir al-Ghanam from a rebel offensive. The town is strategically important because it is 50 miles south-west of Tripoli and 18 miles south of Zawiya. There have been no reports on the numbers of government casualties. (BBC, Reuters)
JUNE 26: African Union leaders from the Republic of Congo, Mali, Mauritania, and Uganda, after attending talks in Pretoria, announced that Qaddafi has agreed to remove himself from negotiations to end the conflict. Regime spokesman Moussa Ibrahim renewed the idea of holding elections, monitored by the United Nations and the African Union, to determine whether Qaddafi should stay in power. However, regardless of the results of the election, Ibrahim asserted “Qaddafi is not leaving anywhere, he is staying in this country.” Later in the day, Ibrahim backed away from the offer of elections, calling Qaddafi the “historical choice.” (Al Jazeera, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 25: The Red Cross successfully transported over 100 Libyans east from Benghazi to Tripoli. The organization hopes to help more people make the trip, but both sides must approve all of the passengers. (AP)
JUNE 24: The Libyan national soccer team, usually closely aligned with the Qaddafi regime, suffered the defections of four of its members. They, along with thirteen other soccer players, traveled to the Nafusa Mountains and declared their support of the rebel cause. (NY Times, Al Jazeera, Al Arabiya, Reuters)
JUNE 23: A Few hundred regime supporters gathered in Tripoli’s Green Square on Thursday after Libyan state television broadcast a recent statement by Qaddafi. The demonstrators, most of which were women, pledged to defend Qaddafi against the rebels and NATO. (AP)
JUNE 23: The Libyan government resumed financial support for Libyan students attending U.S. and Canadian colleges by sending funds through Libya’s central bank to the Canadian Bureau for International Education. The CBIE had to apply for permits from the UN, U.S., UK, and Canada in order to transfer the funds. The organization did not report how much money it received, but did confirm it was enough to maintain the Libyan-North American Scholarship Program for another year. (AP)
JUNE 22: Libyan state television released a broadcast of Muammar Qaddafi labeling NATO as murderers in light of the weekend strike that killed nine civilians. Qaddafi called for the UN Security Council, minus the US, United Kingdom, and France, to investigate the incident. He also pledged that Libyans would fight the “foreign barbarians” to the death and threatened to attack Western nations at home. Although the video was released on Wednesday, the phrasing of some of his statements raises questions as to exactly when and where it was filmed. (Reuters, BBC)
JUNE 22: Libyan television reported that shelling from a NATO warship in Ziltan on Wednesday has killed dozens of people. The reports have not been independently verified and NATO has yet to comment. A rebel spokesman in Ziltan stated that NATO had been hitting military targets in the town almost daily. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)
JUNE 21: The Humans Rights Watch located and inspected the removal of over 150 landmines placed 10 miles north of Zintan by government troops. The organization has previously confirmed that Qaddafi forces have used five different types of landmines, including antivehicle and antipersonnel mines, at six locations in Libya. (HRW)

JUNE 20: A regime security guard was shot and killed at the Tripoli hotel that has housed foreign journalists throughout the conflict. There is confusion about the circumstances of his death, with some government officials claiming he was killed by rebel snipers while others say that he shot himself accidentally with his own weapon. (NYT)

JUNE 20: The Qaddafi regime underscored claims that a NATO airstrike early Monday morning intentionally targeted civilians in a strike forty miles west of Tripoli that killed fifteen people, including several children. NATO officials described the bombing as “a precision strike on a legitimate military target.” Officials claim eight rockets struck a luxurious country estate belonging Khoweldi Hamedi, a former military officer who had participated in the 1969 coup that brought Colonel Qaddafi to power. Hamedi is reported to have survived the strike. (LAT)

JUNE 19: A heavy government bombardment of rebel lines at Dafniya, 15 miles west of Misrata, killed ten opposition fighters and wounded fifty-four. Government forces also ambushed a group of rebels and killed five of them in the firefight outside of Dafniya. In Takut, however, government troops lost forty-five soldiers and six armored vehicles while battling rebel forces. (AP, Al Arabiya)
JUNE 19: Libyan Foreign Minister Abdul-Ati al-Obeidi described the NATO airstrike that mistakenly killed civilians in a residential district of Tripoli as a “deliberate attack on a civilian neighborhood,” and called for a global jihad against the West. The airstrike killed nine people, including two children, and wounding eighteen. (AP, Washington Post)

JUNE 16: Libyan Prime Minister Al-Baghdadi Ali Al-Mahmoudi appeared to have tossed out Saif al-Islam’s offer of an election, saying that Qaddafi was not concerned by "any referendum". (Reuters)

JUNE 16: Saif al-Islam’s offer of elections came as other Libyan officials were meeting with senior Russian envoy Mikhail Margelov. (Al-Jazeera)

JUNE 16: Qaddafi forces retreated from their positions in the towns of Zawiyat al-Babour and al-Awiniyah in the Nafusa Mountains. Rebel troops have seized the towns. (Al Jazeera)

JUNE 16: Muammar Qaddafi’s son, Saif al-Islam Qaddafi, reported that his father is willing to hold elections and would step aside if he lost. Saif assured that the elections could be in as soon as three months from now and international observers could oversee the process to guarantee transparency. There has been no immediate response from NATO or the rebels, and analysts believe that the proposal may sow discord within the groups. (AP, Reuters)

JUNE 16: Russian envoy Mikhail Margelov met with Libyan Foreign Minister Abdul-Ati al-Obeidi a week after meeting with the opposition in Benghazi. Margelov also plans to meet with Prime Minister Al-Baghdadi Al-Mahmoudi. Magelov stated the African Union should be the main force in crafting a resolution and that airstrikes are not the solution; he suggested that the ICC defer the cases against Muammar Qaddafi, Qaddafi’s son Saif, and the head of regime’s intelligence directorate if Qaddafi agrees to leave soon. (AP, AP, Los Angeles Times, Al Jazeera, BBC, Reuters)

JUNE 15: The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, comprised of Russia, China, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, released a statement calling for an end to NATO’s military campaign in Libya. African leaders also urged NATO to cease its airstrikes and for the African Union and United Nations to help both sides reach a political solution. Uganda’s Foreign Minister Ruhakana Rugunda likened NATO’s intervention to “going back to colonialism.” The African ministers agreed that the bombing had contributed the humanitarian crisis instead of facilitating a political solution. However, the AU does not have a unified stance on the issue, with a growing number of countries condemning Qaddafi. (Bloomberg, Reuters, Reuters)

JUNE 15: The Libyan government, in a move to demonstrate that it is still functioning normally, approved a $31.4 billion budget for the rest of 2011. Salaries account for barely under half of the appropriated amount. The former central bank governor, Farhat Bengdara, who defected in March, approximated that the Qaddafi regime had only $500 million in cash at the end of February, but still possessed about 155 tons of gold bars. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 15: Qaddafi troops fired over 20 Grad rockets into the town of Nalut and shelled the Dehiba border crossing. There were no casualties in Nalut. (Reuters)

JUNE 15: Twenty-seven Libyan soldiers and fourteen civilians traveled in boats to the Tunisian port of Ketf to escape the fighting. The Tunisian state news agency reported that some of arriving soldiers were senior regime officers. According to a Tunisian official, the boatloads are one of several groups of Qaddafi troops that have recently fled to Tunisia. (AP)

JUNE 14: Government troops were defeated in the town of Ryayna, west of Yafran in the Nafusa Mountains. They retreated, allowing rebel forces to capture the town. (Reuters)

JUNE 14: President of Liberia Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf cut diplomatic ties with the Qaddafi regime, the first African nation to do so since the uprising began.   He stated that Qaddafi has lost legitimacy and that Libya may reestablish relations once the sides reach a political settlement. (Reuters, Reuters

JUNE 14: Government troops retreated from the town of Kikla, about 90 miles southwest of Tripoli. They established positions a few miles away as rebel forces took control of the town. There are no reports on any clashes between the two sides. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 14: Qaddafi forces fired rockets at opposition troops occupying the vital Dehiba border crossing by Tunisia.  Some of the rockets landed over the border in Tunisia, further raising tensions between the two countries. Tunisian security forces are concerned about the safety of those gathered at the border crossing. The last time rockets landed in Tunisia, on May 17, the Tunisian government threatened to report Libya to the U.N. Security Council. (AP, Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 13: Government forces engaged with rebel troops at the eastern town of Brega. Witnesses say that the regime troops pretended to surrender before firing on opposition forces, killing over twenty and wounding twenty-eight. The government troops have established themselves in commercial and residential buildings to protect them from the NATO helicopter attacks. (AFPLos Angeles Times)

JUNE 13: Government forces at the city of Al-Rayyana, northeast of Zintan, were defeated and pushed out after a two-month long siege. They continue to resist rebel troops at Zawiet al-Baqool. Rocket attacks on Misrata struck generators that power the oil refinery near the city. The damage to the refinery will complicate the rebels’ fuel supply lines. (Reuters Canada, CNN)

JUNE 13: Government officials brought reporters to Zawiya to prove that the regime had regained control of the town. Despite reports from rebel spokesmen of heavy fighting in the city, the reporters noted that the green Libyan flag flew in the city center and that the town appeared calm. However, government forces were unable to stop the rebels’ advance from Misrata towards Ziltan. Rebel troops are now just six miles away from reaching the town. (BBC, Reuters, AP)

JUNE 12: Muammar Qaddafi and his son, Muhammad, played chess with the President of the World Chess Federation, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov.   In their meeting, Qaddafi reportedly told Ilyumzhinov that he would not leave Libya argued that he cannot step down from power because he does not actually hold a position in the Libyan government. (AFP, Los Angeles Times, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 12: In an attempt to break a two month long stalemate in the east, rebel forces mounted an assault on the government-held town of Brega. Qaddafi troops pushed them back with artillery and mortars in a heavy fight. Government troops also continued their artillery bombardment of Misrata and engaged a group of rebels who attempted to push towards Zlitan, killing six of them. Regime troops used Grad and Katuysha rockets at Zlitan to kill at least seven rebels and wound forty-nine others. (Reuters, Reuters, Al Jazeera, AP)

JUNE 12: A regime spokesman told the “ugly, evil forces of NATO” to accept that the rebel cause was doomed, and that rebel attacks and allied airstrikes would not defeat Qaddafi.   He portrayed the fighting in Zawiya as actions taken by small bands of rebels fleeing the government offensive in the Nafusah Mountains.  (New York Times)

JUNE 12: Government forces have briefly closed sections of the coastal road leading to Tunisia because of fighting in Zawiya. The highway is a crucial source of resources for the regime and its sealing marks a very serious development. Government checkpoints directed civilian traffic on a lengthy detour through rural roads before reopening the road late Sunday after the regime claimed to have routed the rebels attacking Zawiya. (AP, Los Angeles Times)

JUNE 11: The government denied reports of any serious fighting taking place at Zawiya or Zlitan. Government spokesman Moussa Ibrahim dismissed the events as skirmishes with small bands of rebels coming from the Western Mountains to cause trouble. Western reporters scheduled to travel through Zawiya were unexpectedly taken on a lengthy detour accompanied by a police escort. This treatment demonstrates that, despite government attempts to downplay the events, the new outbreaks of surprised the regime. (Washington Post, Reuters, WSJ)

JUNE 11: A heavy bombardment by government forces in the rebel-held town of Misrata killed 30 and wounded at least another 100. Casualties for Qaddafi’s forces have not been released. The shelling of Misrata has continued intermittently into Saturday. (WSJ, Washington Post

JUNE 10: Qaddafi forces continued its attack on the rebel-held town of Misrata. Government forces have tried to push into Misrata from the west and the south, but have been repulsed. Areas near Misrata’s hospital have been hit by artillery fire despite being located far from the front lines. Ten people were killed in the bombardment and at least another ten were wounded. Fighting continues around Zintan, Yafran, and Nalut, while there are reports of government troops organizing to retake the Wazin border crossing with Tunisia from the rebels. (Reuters, CNN)
JUNE 10: Saif al-Islam, Qaddafi’s son and a major regime official, has reportedly contacted the rebels to negotiate terms for his father’s exit from power. Despite requests for refuge in a Libyan village, the rebels refused to consider allowing Qaddafi to stay in Libya. He must instead seek asylum with a different country. Turkey and South Africa are working towards a solution while Uganda’s government has said it would consider a request for asylum and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez continues to refer to Qaddafi as a “friend.” Qaddafi is also seeking protection from prosecution for war crimes. (Bloomberg)
JUNE 10: NATO planes continued to bomb Tripoli on Friday with strikes that news agencies speculated targeted Qaddafi’s compound or the nearby military barracks. Planes have also targeted a town west of Tripoli. (Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 10: Russian envoy Mikhail Margelov, who met with Libyan rebels in Benghazi on Tuesday, is traveling to Tripoli to hold talks with senior members of Qaddafi’s government. President Demitry Medvedev has joined the West in calls for new leadership in Libya but Margelov is not reported to be meeting with Qaddafi directly. (Associated Press)
JUNE 9: Libyan state television reported NATO airstrikes bombed both military and civilian in the town of Zuwarah. It did not mention any casualties. (Reuters)
JUNE 9: Libyan diplomat Mustafa Shaban denied all accusations that Qaddafi’s forces are guilty of crimes against humanity. He said that the opposition and foreign mercenaries were responsible for war crimes and that the government would turn over evidence they had obtained. (AP, Reuters, BBC)
JUNE 8: In his meeting with China’s Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi, Abdelati Obeidi was told that Libya’s most important issue is the implementation of a ceasefire. China reaffirmed that a solution to the conflict should respect Libya's sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity. (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 8: Qaddafi forces attacked Misrata on from the east, west, and south after heavy shelling killed  at least ten rebels and wounded twenty six. (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 8: Pro-Qaddafi troops massed around Zintan began shelling rebel forces in the town. Qaddafi's forces retreated to the Western mountains on Monday after rebels broke a loyalist siege on Yafran. (Reuters)
JUNE 7: After a heavy bombardment of Tripoli by NATO aircraft, Qaddafi once again affirmed that he would fight to the death in an audio address. He claimed to have between 250,000 and 500,000 armed supporters ready to cleanse the country of rebels. Several hundred regime supporters turned out in support of calls by Qaddafi to gather at the Bab Al-Azizya compound in a demonstration of defiance. (Washington Post, Al Jazeera, Wall Street Journal)
JUNE 7: Attorneys for Aisha al-Gadhafi, Muammar Qaddafi’s daughter, filed suits in Paris and Brussels. The Paris complaint asks France’s authorities to locate, identify, and persecute those involved in airstrikes on April 30 which may have killed some of Qaddafi’s relatives. The suit in Brussels accuses NATO of war crimes. Over the next few weeks officials will assess if the case can be admitted. (Washington Post)  
JUNE 7: The Qaddafi government is losing credibility after a number of incidents of misreporting facts about NATO airstrikes.  Their allegations of damages to civilian properties and growing civilian casualties in many instances have proven false.  (Los Angeles Times)
JUNE 7: Libya’s Foreign Minister Abdul-Ati al-Obeidi traveled to Beijing for a three day visit and diplomatic talks in hopes of regaining support.  He will meet with Yang Jiechi on the situation in Libya and possibility of a diplomatic solution.  The spokesman for the government, Moussa Ibrahim, issued a condemnation of the latest airstrikes.  (BBC, Al Jazeera, Reuters, Washington Post)
JUNE 6: In a series of NATO airstrikes against Tripoli, Qaddafi’s command network has suffered setbacks. They have lost missile storage areas and launchers, command and control facilities, and a radar system.After Qaddafi forces shelled a graveyard in the town of Ajdabiya, rebel forces pursued them to the oil town of Brega. In the fighting between the two groups, two rebels were killed from shelling. No casualty information was provided by the Libyan authorities. (Associated Press)
JUNE 5: British Apache helicopters destroyed government missile launchers outside of Brega. (Al Arabiya)
JUNE 4: Due to the fighting between rebels and pro-Qaddafi forces, there are over 1,000 Libyans missing from Misurata. Government troops raided homes and took people hostage. There have been some reports of captives being used as human shields. (Washington Post)
JUNE 4: Pro-Qaddafi forces attacked a rebel checkpoint on the outskirts of Misrata. Government forces have also shelled Nalut and Sintan. According to a rebel spokesman, at least 10 people were wounded in the attack on Nalut. Some of the government-help sections of Libya are running out of food and there was a large anti-Qaddafi protest in Tripoli. (Reuters)

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Opposition Movements and Statements


AUGUST 2: Rebel forces claimed to have advanced to the center of Zlitan in heavy fighting with loyalist troops. Small rebel units in Brega have also engaged with Qaddafi forces in battles that lasted for a few hours in the town’s eastern residential district. (AFP)
AUGUST 1: The family of General Abdel Fatah Younis was openly critical of the National Transitional Council’s attempts to uncover the motives and perpetrators of the assassination. Muatsem Abdel Fatah Younis, General Younis’s son, promised that if the proposed NTC investigation committee was unsuccessful, “we will refer the case to the international tribunal.” (Reuters, AP)
AUGUST 1: Mansour Seyf al-Nasr, the National Transitional Council’s ambassador to Paris, promised that the rebels would use the newly released $259 million in frozen funds to buy “food and medicine.” (Al Jazeera, Reuters, RTT News)
AUGUST 1: Opposition security forces patrolled the streets of Benghazi to search for additional members of the al-Nidaa Brigade, a secret pro-Qaddafi militia operating in eastern Libya. Officials report that they have captured 63 people suspected of having ties to the regime. (Al Jazeera, AFP)
AUGUST 1: Rebel forces retreated from the town of Jawsh in the Nafusa Mountains after a strong loyalist counter-attack. Tiji remained deadlocked between opposition and Qaddafi troops. (AFP, Al Jazeera, AFP)
AUGUST 1: As Ramadan begins, the rebels prepared for a month of added hardships. One rebel swore that “we are going to fight more, not less,” despite the daily fasting. However, many rebel leaders admit that they will continue their advances cautiously. Gas shortages have already slowed the recent rebel offenses in the Nafusa Mountains. (WP, AFP)
JULY 31: The rebels who captured the western city of Ghazaya reported that it was largely uninhabited after loyalist troops abandoned their defensive positions. They suspect that Qaddafi had brought its estimated 5,000 residents, supporters of the government, to Tripoli. (Reuters)
JULY 31: A battle broke out between the rebels and a ‘fifth column’ of pro-Qaddafi group operating in the east under the guise of opposition forces. The rebels captured the base of the pro-government group, known as the al-Nidaa Brigade, after five hours of fighting that killed four rebels and wounded another six. Repel troops killed 4 members of the Brigade and captured 31 of the pro-Qaddafi fighters. The al-Nidaa Brigade was responsible for two jailbreaks in Benghazi that freed between 200 and 300 inmates, including pro-Qaddafi fighters. So far, however, there is no indication that the pro-Qaddafi faction is linked to the death of General Abdel Fatah Younis. The rebels explained that they had not moved against the group earlier because it had links to important local tribes and, “since the issue of tribes is sensitive, we did not want to stop them.” It does raise fears that Qaddafi may be able to take advantage of the lawlessness in the east of Libya. Fighting continued around Tiji in the Nafusa Mountains and the eastern outskirts of Zlitan outside of Misrata. The fighting outside of Zlitan killed 14 rebels and wounded at least 20. (Al Jazeera, Reuters, AP, NY Times, WP)
JULY 30: Fighting around Zlitan killed at least 27 fighters as they pushed closer to entering the regime-held town. (Reuters)
JULY 30: Rebels in the Nafusa Mountains have surrounded the Qaddafi stronghold of Tiji and hope to seize it soon. Opposition tanks and artillery are firing at the estimated 500 government troops stationed in the town, located approximately 125 miles southeast of Tripoli. (Reuters)
JULY 30: Families waiting to return to their homes in Libya with trucks full of possessions formed long lines at the Dhiba border crossing. (AP)
JULY 30: Oil minister Ali Tarhouni claimed that the Islamist group Abu Obaida Al-Jarah Brigade, a group responsible for internal security, killed General Abdel Fatah Younis and his two aides. They ambushed Younis and his guards at the Gammines military base on Benghazi’s outskirts. Tarhouni reported that they had received information from one of the militia’s leaders, but that the killers were still at large. He did not offer a motive for the killings, which revealed divisions among the National Transitional Council and generated questions about effectiveness of its control over some of its fighting groups. Some speculated that countries may be more wary to give the organization control over the frozen funds after the recent events. Tarhouni stated that the NTC had called Younis in for questioning because of complaints that he had mismanaged forces, not because they suspected him of treason. Reassuringly, Younis’s troops willingly returned to the front lines on Friday. NTC chairman Mustafa Abdel Jalil announced that they ordered militia groups to disband and come under control of the Council’s Interior Ministry. (BBC, WP, WSJ, AP, AFP)
JULY 29: According to an official from the UN refugee agency, 2,000 people entered Libya on Friday, nearly twice the daily number for the past month. As rebels take more ground from government troops in the Western Mountains, residents who had escaped from the towns believe it is safe to return. (AP, AP)
JULY 29: General Abdel Fatah Younis’s relatives, members of the large Obeidi tribe, swore allegiance to Mustafa Abdel Jalil, announcing that “We will walk with you all the way.” Hundreds of mourners carried Younis’s coffin through Benghazi’s central Tahrir Square to a cemetery a day after unidentified assailants ambushed and killed him. (AP, Al Jazeera, Reuters, BBC, Reuters)
JULY 29: The latest offensive in the Nafusa Mountains showcased improved coordination amongst the western rebels. The attacking forces used aerial surveillance from NATO to survey Qaddafi defensive positions before the assault, which was the largest one-day territory gain since the beginning of the conflict that involved fighters from multiple towns. Rebels have not allowed reporters to access the towns they claim to have recently seized because of the danger of mines. However, looking from afar, journalists saw no sign of Qaddafi forces in Ghazaya, one of the towns the rebels attacked. (WSJ, Reuters)
JULY 28: Family members reported that they received General Abdel Fatah Younis’s body, burned and bullet riddled, on Thursday. The location of both the attack and the bodies remain undisclosed. (Al Jazeera, BBC)
JULY 28: Unnamed attackers killed General Abdel Fatah Younis, chief of staff of the rebel forces in Libya, and two other officers. Rebel leadership had summoned Younis to Benghazi for questioning, causing Younis’s tribe – the Obeidi, a tribe that controls most of the east – to accuse the leadership of having a role in his death. There are fears that this attack may spark underlying tribal tensions among the rebel forces or undermine international support for the revolution. When Mahmoud Jibril announced the killing, members of the Obeidi tribe gathered in Benghazi and fired weapons in to the air and at the hotel where Jibril made his remarks. No one was hurt, but authorities still sealed off the area. Others see the deaths as signs of the security issues from undisciplined military structures in rebel-held cities. They have captured one of the assailants and are searching for the three bodies, but have not released any further information. (NY Times, WP, Al Jazeera, WSJ, LA Times)
JULY 28: The National Transitional Council arrested General Abdel Fatah Younis, chief of staff of the rebel forces in Libya. They did not disclose the reasons for the arrest, but rumors speculate he may have been smuggling arms to Qaddafi loyalists. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 28: The rebels launched a new offensive in the Nafusa Mountains against the towns of Jawsh, Ghazaya, Badr, and Takut. They have reached the outskirts of Ghazaya and briefly took Jawsh. At Jawsh, Grad rockets and regime forces caught the rebels in a surprise counterattack and pushed them out of the town. The rebels claim to have taken Takut and Ghazaya, but outside sources have not confirmed it. Opposition fighters have captured ammunition, weapons, and 18 Qaddafi soldiers along the way. The opposition fighters seek to drive loyalist forces away from the supply route into Tunisia.   Tunisian television reported that Tunisian border forces had closed the border crowing. Four rebel fighters have died in the fighting and ten more were injured. (AP, Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JULY 28: The tanker Captain X Kyriakou sailed from Benghazi carrying the second, and perhaps last, oil shipment from the rebels before oil production restarts. Ship tracking data indicates that the tanker is headed towards Sardinia. (Reuters)
JULY 28: The National Transitional Council received diplomatic recognition from Portugal. (Reuters)
JULY 27: The National Transitional Council has asked Mahmud al-Naku, a Libyan exile in Britain, to act as the Council’s ambassador to the UK after the expulsion of Libya’s diplomats. The NTC will also receive a transfer $147 million in frozen assets from the UK. Naku requested more funding and supplies from the international community. (Al Jazeera, BBC, AFP)
JULY 27: Rebel forces out of Misrata successfully rescued 105 civilians who Qaddafi forces had abducted in late April. After contacting the leader of the Halbus brigade, one of the best equipped rebel groups in Misrata, the civilians rendezvoused with a rebel column at Garara Qataf. The Halbus brigade, having altered NATO to their plan, safely brought the civilians back to Misrata. (The Guardian)
JULY 27: Rebel leaders declared plans to attack the western city of Ghazaya, between Nalut and the Wazin border crossing, within the next day or two. (Reuters)
JULY 27: Mustafa Abdel Jalil announced that his offer to allow Qaddafi to stay in Libya after stepping down is no longer valid. (NY Times, Reuters, CSM)
JULY 27: The National Transitional Council is preparing to load a shipment 800,000 barrels of crude oil onto the tanker Captain X Kyriakou. The NTC Energy Advisor disclosed that the oil was going to the trading firm Vitol. An anonymous NTC official reported that there is little damage to the oil infrastructure and that only security is the main inhibitor to resuming production, despite reports to the contrary. (UPI)
JULY 27: Rebels in the west expressed skepticism about the practicality of allowing Qaddafi to remain in Libya. They are worried about those in the security forces who remain loyal to Qaddafi and the large role Qaddafi and his family play in the oil, housing, electricity, and cellular communications industries. One rebel, a defector from Qaddafi’s bodyguards, warned that “Qaddafi cannot remain in Libya because if he is here, we will never know peace.” (WP)
JULY 27: Rebel leaders shared reports from Tripoli of a weakening security system and mounting frustration stemming from growing shortages. The regime is shipping young loyalists from the city to the front lines, which rebel leaders hope will lessen the security force’s ability to control the capital. There are some reports of tribal members reselling weapons issued by the Qaddafi regime. However, it is difficult for journalists to acquire a clear picture of events in Tripoli. (WSJ)
JULY 27: The National Transitional Council received official recognition as the “sole governmental authority” and an invitation to send diplomats to London from the UK. British Foreign Secretary William Hague also announced plans to start releasing frozen assets to the NTC. (BBC, WSJ, NY Times, Al Jazeera, WP)
JULY 26: A group of Libyan expatriates in Benghazi formed the New Libya Party, the first attempt to create a new political party in Libya. Co-founder Ramadan Ben Amer stated that the party already numbers about 2,000 members, mostly from Benghazi or Derna, and has the support of nearly 20,000 other expatriates in the US, Canada, and Germany. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 26: Opposition Interior Minister Ahmed Hussein al-Darrat met with Italian Interior Minister Roberto Maroni to secure assistance in developing the National Transitional Council’s security forces and to pledge cooperation in confronting the migration crisis between the two countries. (Reuters)
JULY 26: Rebels in Misrata report that they are still clearing unexploded ordnance from the streets to protect civilians. Ali al-Hish, leader of the city’s ordnance disposal committee, reports that cluster bombs pose the biggest problems and the largest danger to children. (Reuters)
JULY 26: Opposition fighters have found chemical agent antidotes in abandoned loyalist troops’ equipment. Qaddafi possesses large quantities of chemical weapons but lacks the capability to use the material in air attacks. (Global Security Newswire)
JULY 25: Rebels in Misrata are running short on fuel due to fires caused by a rocket strike at a storage depot. The gas stations that remained open faced long lines because of panic-buying by civilians. Other nearby fuel depots are undamaged, but rebels cannot access them until the fire dies down. (Reuters Africa
JULY 25: UN envoy Abdul Elah al-Khatib met with representatives from the National Transitional Council to discuss possible political solutions.  However, they did not forge any firm initiative. Rebel leader Mahmoud Jibril reiterated their precondition that Qaddafi stepping down from power, not a ceasefire, must be the first step to peace. (Reuters, Reuters)
JULY 25: Libyan diplomats in Bulgaria stormed their own embassy, tore down the national flag, destroyed portraits of Qaddafi, and aligned themselves with the rebels. Bulgaria has declared Ibrahim Alfouirs, one of the diplomats involved, a persona non grata and has given him 24 hours to leave the country. Bulgaria clarified that they declared Alfouirs an unwanted person pursuant to Article 9 of the Vienna Convention, not because he sided with the rebels. (Reuters, Sofia Echo, Novinite)
JULY 25: Rebel efforts to clear loyalists out of Brega have slowed to a crawl due to the mines planted by Qaddafi forces. A captured government soldier claimed they had laid over 45,000 mines in the area, a figure that is unsubstantiated. So far, the rebels have managed to clear around 200 mines.   Opposition forces are keeping journalists away from the town because of the fighting; making it difficult to verify which way the balance of power is shifting. (AFP)
JULY 25: The second part of Turkey’s first shipment of fuel aid to east Libya arrived. The first tanker, carrying 5,000 tonnes of diesel, arrived in Benghazi last week while the second tanker, also with 5,000 tonnes of diesel, arrived on Monday. This is part of Turkey’s multi-million dollar free oil supply deal with the National Transitional Council. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 25: Opposition leaders met with UN envoy Abdul Elah al-Khatib, who seeks to forge a political agreement and end the Libya conflict. (Reuters)
JULY 25: As Ramadan approaches, hostilities are likely to slow. Journalists in contact with rebels report that many plan to fast during the day, despite dispensation for fighters from the Koran. (BBC)
JULY 24: Opposition leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil announced that Qaddafi and his family could remain in Libya as part of a political solution. They must leave power and allow the rebels to choose where they may stay in Libya. While this seems to contradict the message from other opposition leaders, Jalil’s comments are very broad and leave room for interpretation. Jalil also confirmed that Qatar had recently increased its military aid to the rebels. He was accompanied by a Qatari military trainer who said he and his team had spent the last 20 days in the western mountains training rebels in tactics and light weapons usage. Qatar also sent vehicles and armored mine clearers. (WSJ, Reuters)
JULY 24: Rebels in Nalut weathered an intense rocket and artillery barrage from Qaddafi forces. More than 70 Grad rockets landed in the town. The rebels also report that loyalist troops are laying landmines around Tarkut and Barda, where electricity, water, and communications remain cut off. (NY Times)
JULY 24: Journalists report that rank-and-file rebel troops harbor a myriad of complaints against NATO’s airstrikes. They are frustrated about the pace of the bombing or the targets NATO chooses. (NY Times)
JULY 24: Information gathered from captured loyalist soldiers show that Qaddafi forces are still well-supplied, but are often motivated by misinformation. Many believe that they are fighting foreign mercenaries and radical elements that are using human shields. Government forces are kept in line by the People’s Militia, an organization staffed by youths who often have a criminal background. (LA Times)
JULY 24: The National Transitional Council will soon receive a loan of $143 million from Germany for civil and humanitarian purposes. (Reuters, AP)
JULY 23: Police forces in Benghazi are trying to overcome supply shortages to maintain security in the city. They are undertrained, have gone without pay for two months, frequently purchase their own gas, and must make do without the guns, radios, and vehicles that were lost in the initial looting. However, the police believe that they are slowly regaining the trust of civilians. Benghazi locals have donated cars to the force and raised money to rebuild some of the destroyed police stations. (LA Times)
JULY 22: Rebel spokesman Ali al-Issawi revealed, in his meeting with Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, that the National Transitional Council wants Qaddafi to face the International Criminal Court. He also announced that the rebels claimed responsibility for an explosion at a Tripoli hotel Thursday where there was a meeting attended by Qaddafi’s son Saif and other top regime officials. Issawi reported that the attack wounded Qaddafi’s intelligence chief, Abdullah Senussi. (AP, Al Jazeera)
JULY 22: A Qatari plane bound for Libya delivered computers, printers, rice, milk, sugar, and four trucks full of ammunition boxes. The Qatari government did not comment on who the ammunition was for. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 21: Mahmoud Jibril met with Spanish Prime Minister Jose Rodríguez Zapatero in Madrid. Zapatero encouraged Jibril to strengthen the National Transitional Council and expressed concerns about the humanitarian situation in Libya. (AFP)
JULY 21: The National Transitional Council is reaching out to foreign firms to return to the country and rebuild their damaged installations. NTC leadership allowed that the governments can deduct the costs from Libya’s frozen assets. (AP)
JULY 21: Mines laid around Brega continue to thwart rebel attempts to gain control of the city. Colonel Ahmed Bani, a rebel military spokesman, loosely estimated that Qaddafi forces had laid 400,000 mines at Brega. Bani expects to have a breakthrough there in a few days. The week-long assault on Brega has resulted in at least 72 dead rebel fighters and 623 wounded. Opposition leader Mahmoud Jibril reported that loyalists had rigged the Brega oil installations to explode if they lose the town. Thursday’s fighting at Zlitan left three rebels dead and another 25 wounded. Rebels at Souk al-Thulatha were trapped by a Qaddafi counter attack where loyalist troops and tanks surrounded the town. (Reuters, Reuters, AP, Bloomberg, Al Jazeera)
JULY 21: After reportedly capturing the small, southern town of Umm al-Aranib on Monday, rebel forces can now threaten the Qaddafi-held town of Sebha, one of Qaddafi’s three regional power centers located 80 miles to the north. Sebha is critical to supplying Tripoli with food, fuel, and other supplies imported from neighboring countries. However, the southern rebels pose no direct threat to the capital. Libya’s south has received little media attention because of the area’s poor communications, lack of internet, and remote location. (WSJ)
JULY 21: Rebel officials reported that they have pushed most of Qaddafi’s forces out of the eastern town of Brega except for about 200 government troops ensconced within the petrochemical facilities located in the town’s southwestern neighborhood. However, rocket attacks from Qaddafi positions west of Brega as well as massive quantities of anti-personnel mines laid by retreating loyalists continue to hamper rebel movement through the town. Forces in the Nafusa Mountains stated they are waiting for orders from Benghazi to launch a new offensive before Ramadan. Rebels in Misrata suffered seven dead and 13 wounded when they repulsed a loyalist attack. Opposition troops in Bir Ayad exchanged rocket fire with government forces in Bir al-Ghanam. (Al Jazeera, AFP, AFP)
JULY 21: Rebels dismissed Qaddafi’s continued attempts to mobilize tribes against the opposition, claiming that “tribalism has relevance only as a default mode of governance.” (AP)
JULY 21: Opposition leader Mahmoud Jibril is in Madrid for talks with Spanish Foreign Minister Trinidad Jimenez. Jibril is expected to seek more military aid. (AFP)
JULY 20: Rebels attacking Zlitan reported that they captured General Abdul Nabih Zayid, chief of operations for government forces in Zlitan. They stated that he is well-cared for and being interrogated about violence targeting civilians. (The Guardian)
JULY 20: While rebels in the east attempt to organize forces into a ‘national army’ of sorts, military capabilities in the west remain fractionalized and uncoordinated. They are more of a collection of guerilla bands loyal to the towns that formed them rather than a coherent fighting force. Local rivalries continue to undermine cooperation between some regions, such as the looting at Qualish. (NY Times)

JULY 20: Souleiman Fortia, one of the rebels who met with President Sarkozy, stated that France had been helpful and can help rebel forces acquire weapons from Arab countries. President Sarkozy was publicly noncommittal on the request for more weapons. (NY Times, Al Jazeera, AFP)

JULY 20: Three rebel leaders from Misrata – Ramadan Zarmouh, Ahmed Hachem, and Souleiman Fortia – traveled to Paris to meet with French President Nicolas Sarkozy in Paris to request more aid and weapons to stage an advance on Tripoli. (AP, Al Arabiya)

JULY 20: Libyan rebels advancing from Misrata report that they are now only 1.5 kilometers outside of Zlitan after this morning’s offensive. (The Guardian)
JULY 20: A rebel spokesman estimated that they had killed at least 30 loyalist fighters in Brega. Anti-vehicle mines have damaged several of the rebels’ tanks and dozens of their weaponized trucks. According to fighters in the city, loyalist forces set ditches of oil on fire to generate thick smoke to cover their movements from NATO aircraft. (LA Times, Reuters)
JULY 19: Oilibya, an oil marketing company, distanced itself from the Qaddafi regime by stating that the Libyan government, not Qaddafi himself, owns Libya Oil Kenya Ltd., the registered proprietors of Oilibya.  The company promised not to pay the government until the conflict is resolved. (AllAfrica)
JULY 19: Rebel troops in Brega have been attacked by loyalist troops driving trucks with mounted weaponry flying the rebel flag for protection and deception. During the fighting on Tuesday, opposition fighters took four prisoners. Doctors treating the casualties from the fighting in Brega raised the toll from Tuesday’s fighting to 27 dead and 83 wounded. More than 50 rebels have died in the 6 days of fighting for the city. (AP, LA Times, AP)
JULY 19: The National Transitional Council announced that it will not sign any new contracts with oil companies until it is an elected government. However, the NTC will continue to honor existing contracts. (Bloomberg)
JULY 19: Rebels at Qualish stated that minefields recently laid by loyalist forces are hampering attempts to launch new offensives. The rebel leaders have claimed the increasing use of mines by the regime is an indication of Qaddafi’s desperation. (NPR)
JULY 19: Government artillery fire on rebel positions in Brega killed seven opposition fighters and wounded twenty-five. (AP)
JULY 19: Doctors have claimed that over half of the rebel casualties from their assault on Brega are caused by government-laid land mines. (LA Times)

JULY 18: Rebel officials stated that they had pushed the loyalist forces remaining in Brega into the industrial center and cut off their supplies. Opposition troops occupying the city reported a large number of anti-personnel mines placed in the streets by loyalist forces. Rebel leaders have claimed that intercepted radio chatter has revealed that Qaddafi’s son, Mutassim, is leading the loyalist troops that retreated to Ras Lanuf. (Al Jazeera, BBC, WSJ)

JULY 18: Russia has publicly refused to recognize the National Transitional Council as Libya’s legitimate government and condemned other western countries for doing so. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov stated that to recognize the NTC would be to take sides in the civil war. (BBC, Reuters, Christian Science Monitor, International Business Times)
JULY 18: Rebels announced that they were largely in control of the eastern oil port of Brega despite some pockets of resistance and numerous mined areas. Most of Qaddafi’s forces have retreated to Ras Lanuf. Rebels hope that recapturing the city will be a tipping point in their campaign. The claims have not yet been confirmed. (BBC, Reuters, Reuters, Christian Science Monitor, UPI)
JULY 17: Maltese Foreign Affairs Minister Tonio Borg announced that Malta is considering opening a line credit for the National Transitional Council to use with the understanding that the NTC will repay the country through unfrozen assets. In his meeting the Council representatives, Borg also discussed the issue of illegal immigration from Libya. (Times of Malta)
JULY 17: Former central bank chief Farhat Bengdara, now leading the International Libyan Bankers’ Association, is advising the National Transitional Council on how to access and manage the $168 billion of frozen assets it has gained access to. He wants the NTC to begin raising finance and revive the banking industry. With no one managing the investments, Bengdara says, the NTC is losing money every day. (Bloomberg)
JULY 17: Rebel forces entered Brega and fought with government troops in the street. The fighting in the town reportedly wounded over 120 rebels. Opposition leaders stated that they cleared about 400 mines from areas in and around Brega, including around civilian homes. In the Nafusa Mountains, the two sides exchanged artillery fire at Qualish. Four rebels were injured at Qualish when their vehicle triggered a government-planted landmine. (Reuters, Al Jazeera, Reuters, LA Times)
JULY 16: Reporters believe that the apparent removal of social barriers between ethnic groups and tribes amongst the rebels counter claims by Qaddafi and other Middle Eastern leaders that Arab states require a strongman as a leader for internal peace. However, there are still some visible divisions between Berbers and Arabs, especially in the Nafusa Mountains. (LA Times)
JULY 16: Heavy fighting around Brega pushed Qaddafi forces further west, killing 10 rebels and injuring another 172. They captured four Qaddafi soldiers, but there is no information about government casualties. The rebels are now 12 miles outside of Brega, kept back by artillery fire and Grad rockers. In the West, fighting broke out 9 miles south of Bir al-Ghanam at the village of Bir Ayad. Rebels beat back a convoy of about 15 government vehicles. Clashes in Misrata have killed six rebels and injured four. (Reuters, AP, LA Times, Christian Science Monitor)
JULY 15: A reporter’s examination of rebel weaponry and positions in the Nafusa Mountains continue to indicate the rebels’ lack of organization and leadership. A front line defensive position was armed with inert French-made rockets seized from the Gha’a military depot, while only a short ways away High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) rockets lay beside the road. Given that high-level military defectors supposedly accompany the rebels, such armaments blunders are confusing. The reporter also noted continued looting and arson at Qualish. (NY Times)
JULY 15: The National Transitional Council’s Oil Minister announced that they will be able to export up to 1 million barrels of oil a day three to four months after Qaddafi’s removal. (AP)
JULY 15: The rebels launched “a full-scale attack” on the government-held oil town of Brega in the east but were defeated by Qaddafi defenses. The fighting killed one rebel and pushed their forces back to positions further east. (AP)
JULY 15: At the fourth meeting of the Libyan Contact Group, the National Transitional Council gained funding pledges of $300 million from Turkey and up to €400 million in credit from Italy, €100 million of which they plan to make available immediately. Turkey also backed a proposal to release $3 billion of frozen funds to the rebels under UN supervision. The Group has recognized the NTC as the legitimate interlocutor of the Libyan people. New recognition from countries, including the United States, will give the opposition a major financial and legitimacy boost. The NTC will present its plans for transition and governance after Qaddafi at the meeting. (BBC, Al Jazeera, Reuters, WSJ, Reuters, AP, Reuters)
JULY 15: Analysts say that divisions among rebel forces fighting forces in the Nafusa Mountains will blunt their effectiveness and raise doubts about the rebels’ ability to threaten Tripoli. While the recent battle for Qualish involved fighters from many different towns, many returned home afterwards, leading to the small garrison that government troops easily routed. The people of Zintan in particular feel that they are bearing the brunt of the fighting. (Reuters)
JULY 15: Rebels in the Nafusa Mountains have insisted that if they had more and better weapons they would be capable of storming Tripoli. Nearly half of the opposition fighters around the frontlines in recent battles are without a weapon, hoping to find or confiscate one from loyalist soldiers. (WP)
JULY 14: During their recapture of Qualish, rebel forces reported finding anti-personnel and anti-vehicle landmines laid by loyalist forces near the town. (Reuters)
JULY 14: There has been a fresh disappearance of portable anti-aircraft missiles, commonly referred to as MANPADS, from captured military depots in the Nafusa Mountains, underscoring the rebels’ serious organizational weaknesses. The United States had previously asked the National Transitional Council to collect and secure any of the missiles, and has given $1.5 million to the Mines Advisory Group and the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action in hopes that the organizations can prevent the theft of more missiles. However, there is no direct evidence that the rebels are directly involved in any arms trafficking. (NY Times)
JULY 14: By Thursday morning, rebels in Qualish garrisoned the town with more fighters and established heavier defensive positions supported by truck-mounted machine guns. Government artillery, which fired at the town through the night, ceased at dawn. The rebels report that they captured two government officers who are mercenaries from Mali. (Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JULY 14: Rebel leaders in eastern Libya report that they are prepared to launch another major offensive in hopes of recapturing Brega. (Al Jazeera, Ahram)
JULY 14: As the latest meeting of the Libyan Contact Group draws closer, rebel leadership renewed their calls for more funding. Mazin Ramadan, a Libyan-American assisting the National Transitional Council with finances, announced that “We’re getting decimated on the financial front lines.” Fuel shortages in Benghazi necessitate daily six-hour brownouts, and rebel government workers’ salaries have not been paid in two months. While several countries have promised cash, only Qatar has actually delivered their donation, which is almost completely spent. Unlike the west, the main problem in the east is financial, not humanitarian. (LA Times)
JULY 13: Rebel troops launched a successful counterattack late on Wednesday after initially retreating from Qualish during a government offensive. After retaking the town, fighting reduced to skirmishes on the eastern edge of Qualish and some artillery exchanges. The hospital in Zintan reported 8 dead fighters and 27 more wounded. The rebels confirmed that other fighters were treated at different hospitals, but did not state how many. Evidently, at the time of the government attack in the morning, a very small and unprepared rebel force occupied Qualish. After recovering the town, rebels reported that they found the bodies of three opposition fighters who Qaddafi troops had executed. After the fighting, the frontlines were unchanged. (WP, Reuters, NY Times, Al Jazeera)
JULY 13: The rebels were defeated by a Qaddafi counterattack at Qualish. When they spotted government vehicles, rebel forces fled east towards Kikla. One fighter in Zintan reports that they retreated because they ran out of bullets and that they are preparing to take the town back. (BBC, AFP)
JULY 13: The National Transitional Council received official recognition from Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. (AP, Reuters, AFP)
JULY 13: Mahmoud Jibril is leading a rebel delegation to brief NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and meet with president of the European Commission, Jose Manuel Barroso. Jibril denied that the National Transitional Council is involved in negotiations with the regime. (WSJ, AP, Reuters)
JULY 12: Human Rights Watch released a report accusing the rebels in the Western Mountains of reprisal pillaging and damage in four towns seized since last month, stating that “The rebel conduct was disturbing.” Some of the crimes include looting many businesses and at least two medical centers, beating suspected loyalists, and burning homes. The towns subjected to these abuses are Awaniya, Rayaniyah, Zawiyat al-Bagul, and the lost town of Qualish. Some of the crimes targeted members of the Mashaashia tribe, long-time supporters of Qaddafi. Col Mukhtar Farnana, the region’s senior military commander, explained that “Houses that were robbed and broken into were ones that the army had used…Those people who were beaten were working for Qaddafi’s brigades.” He also insisted that rebel forces are under orders not to loot, otherwise “people would have burned these towns down to the ground.” The reported actions raise questions about future conduct. (NY Times, BBC, Reuters)
JULY 12: The rebels in the Nafusa Mountains opened the Rhebat air strip, a long stretch of highway, which opened a link with Benghazi and allowed National Transitional Council Ali Tarhouni to visit the mountains. Tarhouni announced that he will bring humanitarian and military aid to the area and predicted an offensive breakthrough that will remove Qaddafi from power by the end of Ramadan. (Reuters)
JULY 12: Switzerland is sending a diplomat to Benghazi to strengthen the country’s diplomatic ties with the National Transitional Council. (AFP)
JULY 12: Though the rebels have secured the border crossing with Tunisia, the population in the Nafusa Mountains faces a growing humanitarian crisis. Opposition forces in Zintan report that the sporadic aid deliveries and shipments trucked across the border are insufficient to feed the gathering of residents, refugees, and fighters. Food, water, fuel, and basic medical supplies remain at critical levels. (NPR
JULY 11: Entrepreneurs in Misrata have been essential to providing the rebels with funds to purchase arms, ammunition, food, and other necessary supplies. One hotel owner reported that “The businessmen of Misrata like myself are now fighting him [Qaddafi] with money instead of guns.” (Reuters)
JULY 11: Shelling in Misrata killed 8 fighters and wounded another 25 rebels. (Reuters)

JULY 11: Opposition leaders fear that they may not be able to end the fighting before the holy month of Ramadan. Rebels continue to blame the lack of a large-scale advance on supply shortages. One commander stated “Most people are thinking only about weapons, but we should be thinking about everything: water, food, shoes, clothes, equipment.” Opposition forces in the Nafusa Mountains also list their lack of a direct line of communication with NATO as a roadblock to organized advances. It is likely that fighting will slow even more during Ramadan. (Washington Post)

JULY 11: Journalists tout the increasing organization among the rebels advancing out of Misrata. Opposition fighters have apparently formed units with a chain of command, offer training, and instruct troops on basic battlecraft. One regiment has a mechanics, communications, armory, and a media department. These changes reflect the transition from urban fighting to more conventional warfare. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 10: A reporter revealed the true nature of rebel actions in the aftermath capturing al-Qualish, a town civilians had abandoned. He reports that rebels shot locks off of doors, acts justified by the leadership as necessary to securing the town. The next day the reporter saw that five buildings had been set on fire and rebels were allowing trucks to leave the town with sacks of grain, bales of hay, and other looted goods. The reporter suspects that tribal rivalries may have driven some of the looting. By Sunday, all of the shops had been raided, several other buildings had been burned, and the gas station was vandalized past the point of use. (NY Times)
JULY 10: The National Transitional Council received official recognition and promises of continued humanitarian assistance from Australia’s deputy foreign affairs and trade secretary, Paul Grigson. (AFP)
JULY 10:  The opposition forces that recently seized al-Qualish in the Nafusa Mountains weathered a heavy artillery barrage from Qaddafi troops. According to the rebels, no one was hurt. (Reuters)

JULY 9: Rebels advancing from Misrata towards Zlitan are digging in along new front lines while facing heavy artillery fire from government positions about 500 meters away. (Reuters, BBC)

JULY 8: Fighting in Misrata killed 5 rebels and wounded another 17, according to medical workers in the area. (Reuters)

JULY 7: Journalists in Benghazi reported a convoy of fighters, military vehicles, and armed pickup trucks boarding a ship in preparation for what they were told will be the first major offensive against Tripoli. Those close to the leadership say the plan is for the force to link up with rebels from Misrata before advancing on the capital. Rebels expect heavy fighting because they suspect Qaddafi has been hiding his forces around Tripoli amongst civilian populations. (WSJ)
JULY 7: Colonel Mohammed Ali Ethish, a senior rebel officer who defected from the Libyan army, expressed doubts that the rebels have the capabilities to take Tripoli due to fuel, personnel, and weapons shortages. Instead, he believes the fall of Tripoli is more likely to come from groups within the capital. He stated that the fighters in the Nafusa Mountains were pursuing more regional goals. Morale is low among Qaddafi’s troops, though, and Ethish believes that many are “waiting for the right time” to defect. Two Libyan army officers and three sub-Saharan African fighters captured by the opposition confirmed supply and morale problems within Qaddafi forces. (NY Times, AP)
JULY 7: Rebel leaders blame the inadequate supplies of ammunition and insufficient NATO support for the slow progress pushing out of Misrata. (BBC)
JULY 7: Botswana acknowledged the African Union’s position of ignoring the ICC warrant for Qaddafi but announced that they will continue to support the arrest warrant. The government of Botswana called on the rest of the African Union to respect human and political rights by supporting the ICC and its mandate. (All Africa)
JULY 6: China’s ministry chief for North African affairs, Chen Xiadong, met with rebel leaders in Benghazi to discuss negotiating a ceasefire. Chen met with Ali Essawi, the deputy head of the rebels, and told him that China considers the National Transitional Council “an important dialogue partner.” (Al Jazeera)
JULY 6: Rebel spokesman Jalal Galal dismissed Qaddafi’s announcement to charge 21 rebel leaders with treason as a joke. (AP)
JULY 6: The rebels will receive aid from Turkey during the month of Ramadan. Turkey will set up tents for the breaking of fast and deliver assistance to the National Transitional Council. (Reuters)

JULY 6: After the rebel forces from the south and west of Misrata briefly linked up, heavy government fire forced them to withdraw. The fighting killed at least 14 rebels and injured another 50. In the Nafusa Mountains, the battle at Qualish killed seven rebels and wounded an unknown number. Opposition leaders organized the attack with NATO, ensuring that allied airstrikes would not mistakenly target the rebels. (BBC, Reuters, WP)

JULY 6: Rebel forces launched a new offensive towards al-Qualish, a town southeast of Yafran in the Nafusa Mountains.   Opposition leaders report that they coordinated with NATO even though there have been no airstrikes reported. Rebel troops surged into the town as soldiers loyal to Qaddafi withdrew after a six-hour battle. The rebels consider it strategically important because it lies on the highway leading to Gharyan, another regime-held city to the northeast. Rebels in Misrata claim to have advanced about 12 miles west overnight. While not confirmed, such a push would bring them within approximately 80 miles of Tripoli. (MSNBC, Reuters, Reuters)
JULY 6: Rebels told news agencies that many of the people killed or injured in the government’s bombardment of Misrata on Tuesday were civilians. (Al Jazeera)
JULY 6: Opposition leaders are scheduled to attend meetings in Brussels on July 13 with NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and European Union President Herman Van Rompuy. A representative of the National Transitional Council may meet with Van Rompuy separately, as well as the European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso. (Al Arabiya)
JULY 6: News agencies spotted the oil tanker Fidas moored in the rebel-held port at Benghazi, confirming that the rebels continue to receive fuel shipments by sea. (Bloomberg
JULY 5: Opposition forces holding Kikla withstood another artillery attack that killed four people and wounded eight. (AP)

JULY 5: Rebels in Misrata have successfully linked together and established a defensive arc to the south and west of the city. During the fighting, opposition forces captured a handful of Qaddafi troops. (BBC)

JULY 5: Shelling in Misrata killed 11 rebels and wounded at least another 42, according to a hospital treating the injured. (Reuters Africa)
JULY 3: Rebels in the besieged city of Kikla claim that they intercepted radio communications indicating they killed a senior regime general. (NY Times)
JULY 3: The rebels rejected the African Union’s offer to sponsor talks with the regime after discovering that that their initiative would not include the departure of Qaddafi, his sons, or his inner circle. (BBC)
JULY 3: The Turkish Foreign Minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, extended his country’s official recognition to the National Transitional Council and promised at least $200 million in aid. (Al Jazeera, BBC, AP)
JULY 3: Rebel leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil, Qaddafi’s former justice minister, revealed that he had sent an offer to Tripoli through a UN envoy that would allow Qaddafi to stay in Libya if he stepped down. If he wanted to stay in Libya, the rebels would decide the place and subject the area to international supervision. Even though the offer is a month old, Jalil still has not received a response. A different spokesperson for the rebels later backed away from the offer, saying that Jalil had expressed a personal view and was “not part of any discussions on our part in negotiations.” Jalil himself later confirmed that there is “absolutely no current or future possibility for Qaddafi to remain in Libya.” (Reuters, Al Jazeera, BBC)

JULY 2: The National Transitional Council agreed to the African Union’s offer to hold talks with the regime. Qaddafi will not be involved in the talks. The AU recommends that both sides call for the deployment of a UN peacekeeping mission. (BBC)

JULY 1: Ibrahim Baitalmal, spokesman for Misrata’s Military Council, announced that they are in talks with France about receiving arms and ammunition, a report unconfirmed by the French government. Misrata remains surrounded on three sides by regime forces. (CNN)
JULY 1: Opposition forces outside of Bir al-Ghanam retreated after government Grad rocket attacks. (Reuters, Reuters)
JUNE 30: Rebels holding Kikla, west of Yafran, came under heavy shelling from the surrounding Qaddafi forces. At Bir al-Ghanam, opposition troops and government forces exchanged artillery fire as NATO warplanes, including an Apache helicopter, hit regime positions at least three times. Fighters in Bir al-Ghanam deny receiving arms from France, but did possess Belgian-made weapons shipped from Qatar. The rebels fear that more civilians may get caught in the fighting as they advance further east. (NY Times, LA Times)
JUNE 30: Hundreds of families fleeing from Tripoli into the Nafusa Mountains report that the city is not stable. There is anti-government graffiti painted on schools, the occasional demonstration, and rebel flags drawn on neighborhood walls. Tripoli suffers from fuel shortages, and food prices have doubled or, in some cases, tripled. The recent influx of refugees to the mountain range comes as rebels make significant gains against Qaddafi forces. (NY Times)
JUNE 30: Libyan rebel chief Mahmoud Jibril says that it may take years for the opposition to restart oil exports from Libya due to the infrastructure’s damage. (Reuters)
JUNE 30: Libya’s opposition chief, Mahmoud Jibril announced that rebel forces need more, better weapons and increased funding in order to win the war against Qaddafi’s troops faster and prevent more bloodshed. He warned that, unless they receive more money, they will not be able to reopen schools this year. (Reuters, AP, AFP)  
JUNE 29: Czech Foreign Minister Karel Schwarzenberg announced his country’s recognition of the National Transitional Council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people during his visit to Benghazi. The Czech Republic also delivered humanitarian aid to hospitals in Libya. (People’s Daily)
JUNE 29: Col. Mahmoud Mosbah, leader of Rujban’s military council within the Nafusa Mountains, confirmed that they had received about 36 tons of light weapons and ammunition in French airdrops. However, he complained that rebels from Zintan had taken all of the weapons and had not distributed them. These claims could not be confirmed. A different rebel spokesman, Massin Madi, admitted it is unclear whether civilians or rebels possess the weapons from the drops. Opposition forces have also received shipments of Belgian rifles from the United Arab Emirates. (NY Times, Telegraph)
JUNE 29: The President of Gabon, Ali Bongo, urged Qaddafi to step down of his own volition “for the good of his country as well as Africa.” (AP)
JUNE 29: The National Transitional Council announced that, once it comes to power, it plans to review all contracts, including oil deals, signed by the Qaddafi regime and cancel any with signs of corruption. Rebel leadership had previously downplayed the possibility that they would eliminate agreements with foreign oil companies. If companies have contracts that were won illegally, the NTC will give them the option to return the “funds to the Libyan people.” However, they promise to “give priority to the countries that were on our side.” (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 29: An unidentified source reported that France organized the airdrop of a large number of weapons, including assault rifles, machine guns, rocket launchers, and anti-tank missiles, into the Nafusa Mountains to arm the rebels. National Transitional Council Spokesman Mahmoud Shammam announced that they had not sought further military assistance. (Reuters Africa, AFP, Washington Post)
JUNE 29: The National Transitional Council received a loan from Qatar for $100 million to pay street cleaners, teachers, as well as others in essential services. The International Contact Group on Libya established a temporary financing mechanism to give the rebels access to money for fuel and salaries. This loan is the first of the over $1.3 billion in international aid promised by the contact group. (AP, AFP, Reuters Africa)
JUNE 28: Representatives from Croatia and Bulgaria recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people at a joint press conference on Tuesday. (People’s Daily)
JUNE 28: Spokesman for the National Transition Council Mahmoud Shammam announced that there is no possibility for direct or indirect talks with Qaddafi in light of the recently issued arrest warrants by the ICC. Shammam had recently met with President Nicolas Sarkozy to discuss the situation in Libya. Last week, Shammam had expressed the possibility of allowing Qaddafi to stay in Libya, today but stated that is no longer an option. (Reuters, Reuters Africa)
JUNE 28: Libyan civilians have spent the last few days clearing more than 500 Brazilian-made antipersonnel mines set in a suburb of Misrata. They discovered the minefield after an explosion killed a farmer’s wandering camel. Qaddafi forces laid the field to protect their defensive position and Grad rocket launchers that pounded the Misrata port and the residential area of Qasr Ahmed. The mines are plastic and cannot be found using metal detectors, which in turn has slowed the clearing process. Human Rights Watch has documented two other locations where Qaddafi forces laid the same mines. (Al Jazeera)
JUNE 28: Two rebels died and four were wounded in fighting around the Ghaaa military base in the Nafusa Mountains about 15 miles south of Zintan. After the short battle, opposition fighters seized rockets, ammunition, high-caliber guns, and assault rifles to bring back to rebel-held cities. They also commandeered dozens of military vehicles. A booby-trapped box of ammunition wounded another four rebel fighters. Some rebels began advancing on Twama, but retreated after an artillery barrage. (LA Times)
JUNE 28: The hospital in Benghazi is running dangerously low on medical supplies and, if they face a new offensive, the rebels’ health minister warns that there will be a major crisis. They released a list of 150 items that the hospital desperately needs, include a variety of drugs, surgical gloves, and gauze. To cope with the shortages, the hospital has had to close nine of its twelve operating theatres and surgeons only operate four times a day.   The rebel leadership has also run out of cash to pay for new supplies. (BBC)
JUNE 27: According to the UN’s Under Secretary-General for Political Affairs, the rebels have gained the upper hand against Qaddafi due, in part, to NATO airstrikes. Journalists on the ground report that fighting is moving steadily closer to Tripoli. (Reuters)
JUNE 27: There are reports that Qaddafi’s hold on the areas he controls is weakening. News reports mention that regime forces have been stopping drivers in Zawiyah, 62 miles west of Tripoli, at checkpoints to search for rebel weapons. Tripoli suffers from unexplained gunfire at night, and anti-government graffiti has been painted over. While food is still readily available in Tripoli, it has become more expensive as transportation costs have risen. (Bloomberg)
JUNE 26: Rebel troops fought Qaddafi forces on the outskirts of Bir al-Ghanam, a town located 50 miles south-west of the capital, in their latest offensive towards Tripoli. Bir al-Ghanam is also only 18 miles south of Zawiya, a Qaddafi-controlled city rebel leaders view as a gateway to Tripoli. Two rebels have died in the fighting, but they contend that government troops have suffered more casualties. Opposition fighters have been able to capture some government equipment and vehicles. There were also clashes reported at Kikla, another mountain town between Yafran and Gharyan. (BBC, LA Times, Reuters)
JUNE 26: Opposition leaders expect to receive an offer through French or South African intermediaries from Qaddafi to step down “very soon.” A meeting of African Union leaders in Pretoria announced that Qaddafi had agreed to stay out of the negotiating process. (Al Jazeera, Al Arabiya)
JUNE 25: Rebel forces in the Nafusa Mountains successfully consolidated their hold over major towns in the area and are beginning to coordinate more amongst each other as well as with allies in Benghazi. Refugees have begun returning to abandoned towns once threatened by Qaddafi forces. However, several towns still lack access to electricity and water, and others are still vulnerable to bombardment from government forces. (NY Times, LA Times)
JUNE 25: Rebels in Misrata are afraid that their hold on the city is wavering. Opposition leaders are publicly critical of what they perceive to be NATO’s reluctance to carry out heavy strikes against Qaddafi’s front lines. They have also requested more weapons, ammunition, cars, and binoculars. (AP, BBC)
JUNE 24: Seventeen Libyan soccer players, including four members of the national team, defected from Tripoli and traveled to the Nafusa Mountains. They publicly declared their support for the opposition movement,  a propaganda defeat for the Qaddafi regime and morale boost for the rebels. (NY Times, Al Jazeera, Al Arabiya, Reuters)
JUNE 24: The International Committee of the Red Cross successfully transported 300 people from Tripoli to Benghazi, including 51 prisoners released by the regime. (AP)
JUNE 24: A member of the NTC revealed that the organization was holding secret talks with opposition members in Tripoli via Skype and satellite phones. The meetings are to gather information on the impact of NATO airstrikes in Tripoli, involve the underground movement in the plans to remove Qaddafi, and develop plans to avoid violence and destruction in the city when Qaddafi falls. Alamin Belhaj, one of the NTC members in charge of conducting the talks, stated that they are receiving reports indicating that the regime is weakening. (BBC)
JUNE 24: National Transitional Council spokesman Mahmoud Shammam stated that indirect talks were taking place with the Qaddafi regime and that the rebels might allow Qaddafi to remain “in a remote part of Libya” as part of a settlement. The condition to exclude Qaddafi and his family members from any post-regime government remains unchanged. Shammam clarified that the talks took place through representatives in South Africa and France. However, the National Transitional Council deputy chairman Abdel Hafiz Ghoga told reporters that “There is no contact, direct or indirect, with the Qaddafi regime.” (Reuters, AFP)
JUNE 23: After inspecting equipment captured by rebels from three different Qaddafi camps in the Nafusa Mountains, Al Jazeera discovered military rations produced and shipped from Turkey. According to the labels, the rations were produced in March, indicating that Turkey sent them after the fighting began. There is no indication yet whether the Turkish government knew of business relations with Qaddafi forces. (Al Jazeera)
JUNE 23: Rocket strikes continued in Misrata’s city center on Thursday. The hospital staff speculates that Qaddafi’s troops are deliberately targeting civilians in the city. Officials say that the rockets have killed three people, two women and a man, and wounded eleven. The rebels are unable to locate the rocket launchers, and are calling on NATO to intensify its bombing campaign. (BBC)
JUNE 22: An NTC representative, Mahmoud Shammam, announced that mediation efforts between the rebels and the regime have been held in South Africa and France through intermediaries, but there have not been any breakthroughs. Shammam stated that he is committed to a democratic Libya that will uphold civil rights and the rights of women. He tried to ease concerns that members of Al Qaeda may have infiltrated the rebel movement by insisting that the government will hold everyone responsible to democratic procedures. (LAT)
JUNE 22: Rebel forces in Misrata have restricted the movement of the international press after warnings by the authorities that members of the media may be spies. Journalists have been turned away at checkpoints, no long have fast internet access, and must use only officially approved translators. Misrata officials no longer recognize accreditation from the National Transitional Council. Mohammed Durat, head of the Media Center of the Misrata City Council, justified the changes as being for the safety of journalists and stated “You should be happy about this.” (Bloomberg)
JUNE 22: The National Transitional Council received Danish Foreign Minister Lene Espersen in Benghazi. Espersen pledged military support and announced that Denmark would “recognize the National Transitional Council through the transition period.” (AP)
JUNE 22: Hospital officials reported that fighting killed two people and wounded another two at Dafniya, approximately fifteen miles west of Misrata. (AP)
 JUNE 22: The El-Araidat neighborhood near center of Misrata was hit by rockets for the first time in weeks. There were no casualties from the attack, but it did damage the residents' sense of security. (ReutersAl Jazeera
JUNE 21: Spokesmen for the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the NTC is “an important domestic political force” during a state visit by NTC Chairman Mahmoud Jibril to Beijing to meet with Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi. The Chinese government underscored its desire that a political solution be found to end the conflict, expressing concern for the damage to Libyan infrastructure  that will hurt future attempts at trade. (Reuters)
JUNE 20: The Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the chairman of the executive board of the National Transitional Council, Mahmoud Jibril, will visit China for talks on Thursday. (Reuters, AP)
JUNE 19: Libyan Brigadier General Fouad al-Adrisi, along with 35 other army officers, announced in a video message that they were defecting to the rebels. (AP)
JUNE 19: Rebel lines at the town of Dafniya, 15 miles West of Misrata, withstood heavy shelling from Qaddafi forces that killed ten and wounded fifty-four. A band of opposition fighters outside of the town lost five soldiers in a fight with government troops. Opposition forces in Takut, after destroying six armored vehicles and killing forty-five enemy soldiers, surrounded Qaddafi troops. In Misrata, three rockets exploded in a residential district. (AP, Al Arabiya, Reuters)
JUNE 18: Mustafa Abdel Jalil, president of the National Transitional Council, met with Tunisian officials in Tunis. Tunisian Prime Minister Beji Caid Sebsi has yet to officially recognize the rebels. (Al Arabiya)

JUNE 17: Rebel and loyalist forces exchanged heavy artillery fire around Zlitan on Friday in the heaviest fighting on the Misrata front since last week. Rebels have been firing artillery and rocket launchers from Dafniya that have a range of about 20 kilometers. The rebels said they were firing at tanks and munitions in Naimah, a small town near Zlitan. At least one rebel commander expressed his frustration with the poor discipline and plans of the rebel forces, saying some of the rebels thought it was a “game” and prematurely revealed their positions after counter artillery wounded a number of fighters. The rebels have previously announced they would not attack Zlitan because of tribal sensitivities, but have been recruiting fighters from the town and attempting to stir an uprising in the city. (Reuters)

JUNE 17: A series of blasts and shootings have rattled Benghazi and sparked a drive within the city to weed out remaining loyalists thought to be responsible for the violence. Yet some locals say the violence is more related to criminal gangs and turf wars. Other violence is thought to be related to the settled of feuds and scores, long suppressed under Qaddafi’s regime, that have burst out in the heavily armed city. (Reuters)

JUNE 16: The rebels claim that with the help of sophisticated communications equipment, they are coordinating attacks against loyalist forces on three fronts in order to stretch the government’s defenses. Rebel spokesmen in Misrata and Benghazi said the rebels had smuggled weapons to cells of allies in Tripoli, where residents say there are nightly clashes with loyalist forces in the restive neighborhoods of Tajura, Souq al-Juma and Feshloom. Rebels claimed that they had advanced on the Misrata front as far west as Naima, although NATO was urging them to retreat to the older front line at Dafniyah. (New York Times)

JUNE 16: Rebel officials have said it is preposterous to believe that Qaddafi would ever cede power. Guma Al-Gamaty, a Britain-based spokesman for the NTC, said that Qaddafi and his family must leave Libyan and that, "If he stays in the country somewhere, he will always wield power through a shadow network." Al-Gamaty also called a suggestion by Saif al-Islam for elections a stalling tactic. "They know the end is near, and they're trying to buy time," he said. (LA Times)

JUNE 16: Rebel forces declared complete control over the Western Mountains after they seized the towns of Zawiyat al-Babour and al-Awiniyah. Qaddafi forces retreated from the towns early Thursday morning. Both villages were key Qaddafi positions for shelling other rebel-held towns. (Al Jazeera)

JUNE 15: Sheikh Khalifa Zuwawi, chairman of the Misrata council, appealed to NATO to aid Zlitan after Qaddafi threatened the rebels there. Government forces are to destroy opposition-held sections of town if rebels do not surrender. Zuwawi fears that the Misrata rebels lack the heavy weapons to break though government forces surrounding Zlitan and aid the opposition there. (Guardian)

JUNE 15: Austria announced its intention to send Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger to talk with the National Transitional Council in Benghazi and offer “concrete support.” (Reuters)

JUNE 15: Rebel forces in Nalut and at the Wazin-Dehiba border crossing withstood a rocket and artillery attack by government troops. They reported that there were no casualties in Nalut.   (Reuters)

JUNE 14: The president of foreign investments and sovereign assets for the National Transitional Council, Mahmoud Badi, asked for $3.5 billion to fund the NTC’s budget for six months. Sales of crude oil have stopped since Qaddafi forces destroyed the oil fields, eliminating a possible source of revenue. Additionally, the NTC lacks the capabilities to provide security for the oil fields to resume production and processing. Badi said that, if they could secure the areas, the NTC could start the refinery at Tobruk and plant at Sarir within weeks. (Bloomberg)

JUNE 14: Opposition forces advanced on Brega in another attempt to expand their control in the east. Starting from Ajdabiyah, a convoy of rebel vehicles headed west to engage with Qaddafi troops weakened by NATO air and helicopter strikes. In the Western Mountains, rebels reportedly pushed back Qaddafi troops and seized the town of Ryayna, near Yefran. (Reuters, Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 14: Rebel troops advancing westward from Misrata report that NATO told them to hold the line between Misrata and Zlitan in advance of expected bombing runs. NATO had dropped leaflets near Zlitan that warned of helicopter attacks and called on government troops to leave their posts. However, according to the rebels, some of their positions had leaflets dropped on them as well, prompting some to retreat. It is unclear as to the extent that these leaflet drops were coordinated with the rebel advance. (AP, BBC, Reuters)

JUNE 14: The National Transitional Council received recognition as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people from Canada. Fourteen nations have recognized the NTC to date. (AFP)

JUNE 14: Rebels claim that Qaddafi forces are hiding Grad rockets and other munitions in Leptis Magna, a World Heritage Site, to protect them from NATO bombings. An opposition commander reported that there are more than five Grad rocket-launcher trucks secreted in the Roman ruins. Rebel forces have also accused Qaddafi of using schools, hospitals, mosques, and other public structures to dissuade NATO airstrikes. (The Australian)

JUNE 14: Rebel forces took control of the town of Kikla after government troops retreated to positions a few miles away. Kikla lies approximately 90 miles southwest of Tripoli. There has been no reporting on any fighting between the two sides. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 14: Rebels holding the Dehiba border crossing withstood a government rocket bombardment. Some of the rockets landed in Tunisia, contributing to the raised tensions between the Tunisian government and the Qaddafi regime. (Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 13: The fighting between rebel forces and government troops in Brega on Monday left over twenty opposition fighters dead and another twenty-eight wounded. Qaddafi forces reportedly approached the rebels with a white flag under the guise of surrendering and then opened fire. (AFP, Los Angeles Times)

JUNE 13: After a two-month siege, rebel forces entered and liberated the city of Al-Rayyana in fighting that killed nine rebels and wounded thirty-five others. They found that over twenty of the residents had been killed, women had been raped, and the city had been cut off from electricity and water. Fighting between government and opposition troops continued at Zawiet al-Baqool. Rebel spokesmen announced that, between the two cities, they had killed and confiscated the weapons of nearly 100 government troops. A government artillery attack on Misrata targeted and severely damaged the generators at the city’s refinery, which has been critical to providing the rebels with fuel. It is unclear how long repairs will take. Until then, the rebels must alter their fuel supply lines. (Reuters Canada, CNN)

JUNE 13: While being subjected to heavy artillery fire, rebel forces advanced west of Misrata to within six miles of Zlitan.  They hope to reach the town by Tuesday to aid opposition forces there.  (AP)  

JUNE 13: Libyan smugglers are bringing AK-47s and grenade launchers across the Tunisian border to arm the rebels.  Tunisia, wary of giving overt support to the rebels, has authorized the search of every car crossing the border into Libya.  According to the smugglers, many members of Libyan society are contributing funds to purchase small arms.  Rebels have called on Western powers to provide heavier weapons officially to expedite the end of the war.  (BBC, BBC)

JUNE 13: The National Transitional Council met with German Foreign Minister Guide Westerwelle.  Afterwards, Westerwelle announced that Germany officially recognized the NTC as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people. (Reuters, Reuters)

JUNE 12: Rebels released what appears to be a government battle plan to recapture Misrata, allegedly seized from a high-ranking regime official in May.  News agencies have yet to verify the authenticity of the document and the regime has not commented on it.  Rebel spokesman Abdallah al-Kabeir says that the number of troops and vehicles involved in the plan are likely exaggerated. (CNN)

JUNE 12: The United Arab Emirates has officially recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya.  This act affirms the UAE’s desire to maintain a relationship with the Libyan people.  They plan to open a representative office in Benghazi.  (Reuters, Al Jazeera)

JUNE 12: Government troops in the eastern town of Brega repelled an attack by rebel troops.  Despite the presence of NATO air cover, the failed assault killed four rebels and wounded at least sixty-five more according to doctors at a Benghazi hospital. In Misrata, government shelling killed six opposition fighters during a rebel advance towards Zlitan.  At Zlitan, a government rocket attack killed seven rebels died and wounded another forty-nine.  (Reuters, Reuters, Al Jazeera, Reuters, AP)

JUNE 12: Contradicting claims made by the Qaddafi regime, a rebel spokesman announced that the attacks at Zawiya were the product of a rebel push northwards from the Nafusah Mountains to combine with underground fighters.  (WSJ)

JUNE 11: In a bid to retake Zawiya, three months after Qaddafi crushed the first uprising, rebels launched a surprise attack against government forces holding the city.  Fighting between the two sides is moving closer to Tripoli, raising the possibility of taking control of the coastal road to Tunisia.  Qaddafi has grown reliant on the highway for supplies due to a naval blockade and the no-fly zone.  Capturing Zawiya would facilitate the rebels’ plans of encircling Tripoli to put additional pressure on the regime and cut Qaddafi off from his last remaining source of fuel.  A National Transitional Council spokesman claimed that the rebels controlled a large section of the western part of Zawiya.  Analysts say that the expansion of fighting is in large part due to the losses inflicted on Qaddafi’s forces by the NATO air campaign.  (Washington Post, Reuters, Reuters, WSJ, WSJ)

JUNE 10: Rebel forces in Zlitan clashed with government troops in the first significant attempt to seize control of a major city in Western Libya since the beginning of the uprising.  Twenty-two rebels have died in the fighting.  Qaddafi’s forces have reportedly surrounded the city and are threatening female residents with rape if they do not surrender.  Taking Zlitan could act as a conduit for the uprising to spread from Misrata to Tripoli.  Rebels fighting in Misrata refrained from attacking into the city in hopes that the residents of Zlitan would rise by themselves, thus avoiding an incident that might provoke tribal warfare. (Washington Post, Reuters, New York Times, Reuters, WSJ)

JUNE 10: Rebels in western Libya face continued offensives by Qaddafi forces. An artillery barrage of Misrata killed ten and wounded at least ten more while shells landed very close to the town’s hospital even though it is positioned far from the front lines. The rebels have held off government offensives from the west and the south of Misrata. Rebels are besieged by government troops at Zintan, Yafran, and Nalut, with no reports of support from NATO jets. Government troop movements indicate the rebels will soon have to defend the seized Wazin border crossing. (Reuters, CNN)
JUNE 10: The National Transitional Council announced on Friday that they have been contacted by Saif al-Islam, one of Qaddafi’s sons, to negotiate his father’s exit from power. Mohamed Al Akari, an aide to NTC leader Mahmoud Jebril, said that, despite Qaddafi’s request to stay, he will not be allowed to remain in Libya. (Bloomberg)
JUNE 9:  China offered to host the National Transitional Council in order to discuss the conflict.  This offer reflects China’s growing involvement in trying to act as a peace broker between Qaddafi and the rebels. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei says that China wants the parties to implement a ceasefire and resolve the conflict through dialogue. (Reuters, AP)
JUNE 9: Rebel attempts to push beyond Misurata are becoming more effective as fighters report they have come within sight of the nearby town of Tawargha. They have been able to cannibalize abandoned Qaddafi weaponry and engage in tactical training. The opposition has advanced forward of the ‘red lines’ established by NATO and set up defensive positions.  ‘Red lines’ are boundaries established by NATO that mark the border between rebel and Qaddafi territory, where it is safe to order strikes on vehicles. As of yet, helicopters have not been employed on the Western front. (BBC)
JUNE 9: After repeated requests for much-needed financial aid, the third meeting of the Libya Contact Group produced several pledges for further funding of the opposition. There, Abdurrahman Mohamed Shalgham told nations that the National Transitional Council needed $3 billion for salaries and food supplies over the next four months.  Shalgham believes that frozen Qaddafi regime assets can be used to aid the rebels. Italy promised nearly $600 million in loans and fuel products, and the U.S. agreed to boost its humanitarian aid by $26.5 million. No other country promised additional assistance. However, NTC Finance Minister Ali Tarhouni stated that they have not received any concrete funding since the verbal promises of the second Contact Group meeting and reinforced that nations should use frozen assets as collateral for loans.  (AP, AP, AFP, Reuters, Washington Post)
JUNE 9: Along with their calls for increased financial assistance, the National Transitional Council announced that it hoped to restart oil production. Despite the destruction of much of the oil-producing infrastructure since the beginning of the conflict, Tarhouni claimed that production could reach up to 100,000 barrels a day ‘soon.’ (Reuters)
JUNE 8: An American refinery received 1.2 million barrels of Libyan crude in the first shipment of oil delivered by the National Transitional Council.  The amount earned from the sale is unknown, but regular practice could provide a much-needed source of revenue for the NTC and establish an alternative way for NATO to provide funding. (AP, AFP)
JUNE 8: Spain has officially recognized the rebel-led National Transitional Council as Libya’s sole legitimate representative and promised to give humanitarian assistance. The National Transitional Council is also recognized by France, Italy, Qatar, and Jordan.  (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 8: As government forces advance on the opposition-held city of Misrata, heavy shelling has killed at least 10 rebels. (Reuters Africa)
JUNE 8: Rebel forces in Zintan were subjected to heavy shelling from government forces. (Reuters)
JUNE 7: The National Transitional Council is meeting with Mikhail Margelov, special representative for the President of Russia for Africa, in Benghazi.  This opens a direct diplomatic relationship between the rebels and Russia.  As a country with billions invested in Libya, Russia hopes to be a part of resolving the conflict.  (BBC, Reuters, Reuters Africa, Al Jazeera, Washington Post, New York Times)
JUNE 6: After Qaddafi forces shelled a graveyard in the town of Ajdabiya, rebel forces pursued them to the oil town of Brega. In the fighting between the two groups, two rebels were killed from shelling. No casualty information was provided by the Libyan authorities. (Associated Press)
JUNE 6: Rebels have taken the town of Yafran, located in Libya’s North West, away from Qaddafi forces. (Al Jazeera, Reuters)
JUNE 6: The rebel ambassador for the Transitional National Council is seeking diplomatic recognition and the ability to use frozen Libyan assets.   The Council has been unable to secure loans from Western countries and now faces the danger of going broke, leaving them unable to pay for weapons, ammunition, medical care, salaries, and fuel.   Obama intends to withhold recognition until Qaddafi steps down.   (Los Angeles Times)
JUNE 4: Rebels repelled Qaddafi forces in an attack against a checkpoint on the edge of Misrata. One rebel was killed and another wounded. (Reuters)
JUNE 3: Ali Tarhouni, Libya’s rebel finance minister, says that, despite Western military aid, the opposition movement is broke. He has sought more funds from the Qatari government to pay for diesel fuel, as electricity in Benghazi is estimated to only last midway through this week.   Tarhouni has been unable to secure loans from the West and has lost the revenue from oil because of attacks on oil installations by Qaddafi forces. (New York Times)
JUNE 3: Chinese diplomat Zhang Zhiliang met with Mustafa Abdel Jalil, the leader of the rebel National Transitional Council in Qatar. The Chinese Foreign Ministry provided no details of the talk. Rebels have taken over Bir Ayyad. (Reuters)

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March 2011

U.S. and Coalition Operations and Statements

Pro-Qaddafi Movements and Statements

Opposition Movements and Statements


April 2011

U.S. and Coalition Operations and Statements

Pro-Qaddafi Movements and Statements

Opposition Movements and Statements


May 2011

U.S. and Coalition Operations and Statements

Pro-Qaddafi Movements and Statements

Opposition Movements and Statements